intro to sociology ch. 4

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macrosociology

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Sociology

62 Terms

1

macrosociology

analysis of the macrosocial. broad features of society like the class system. primarily functionalists and conflict theorists

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2

microsociology

analysis of the microsocial. focusing on social interaction in small groups. primarily symbolic interactionists

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3

social structure

the framework that surrounds us, consisting of the relationships of people and groups, which gives us direction to and sets limits on behavior. social structure guides our behavior. anything that structures or gives shape to social interaction

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4

culture

the broadest framework that shapes the people we become

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5

norms

rules that govern social interaction and conduct

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6

social location

the corners in life that people occupy because of where they are located in society

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7

class

social locations that influence our behaviors, ideas, and attitudes

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8

social class

social location based on income, education, and occupation. large numbers of people who have similar amounts of income, education, and who work in comparable occupations are in the same class

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9

weber's definition of class

a large category of people who rank similarly to one another in terms of thinking like wealth, prestige, and power

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10

power

the ability of a social actor to achieve goals in spite of or against the resistance of others

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11

capitalists

Marx identified them as those who own the means of production

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12

workers

those who sell their labor in order to make a living

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13

status (henslin)

the position (location) someone occupies in society or in a social group

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14

status (weber)

positive or negative social estimation of honor

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15

status set

the constellation of statuses that a person occupies throughout their life. occupying many different social positions at once. ex. student, employee, member, etc.

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16

ascribed status

involuntary status. something we are born into or involuntarily acquire throughout life

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17

achieved status

voluntary status. someone had to do some activity in order for it to result in a certain status

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18

status symbols

outward markers of status such as items that announce status to others.

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19

conspicuous leisure

the non-productive use of time as an outward display of status

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20

master status

cuts across the other statuses that you hold. the status through which others evaluate and identify you the most. other statuses are "filtered" through the master status

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21

status inconsistency

ranking high on some dimensions and low on others

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22

role

the behaviors, obligations, and privileges, attached to a status. the expectations for how a person of a given status is to act

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23

group

people that have something in common and who believe that they have something in common. consist of people that interact regularly with each other and share similar norms, values, and expectations

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24

in-groups

groups towards which we feel loyalty

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25

out-groups

groups towards which we feel antagonism

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26

social institutions

ways or patterns developed in societies to meet a variety of needs. function to meet both systemic needs and individual needs

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27

the family

regulates production and socializes and protects children

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28

religion

encourages social integration by instilling in people common values and beliefs. it also contributes to social control by promising rewards for adherence to norms and promising punishment for violation of social norms

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29

education

transmits knowledge and skills across generations

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30

economy

produces and distributes goods and services

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31

polity

allocates power, determines authority, maintains order

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32

functionalism

institutions provide vital functions for society. there are things that all societies must do in order for those societies to persist

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33

examples of functional requisites

replacement, socialization, production and distribution of goods and services, preservation of order, and provision of meaning or sense of purpose

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34

conflict theory

social institutions do not work harmoniously for the common good. powerful groups in society manipulate institutions in order to maintain their own position of privilege

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35

solidarity

the degree to which people are united by shared values and other social bonds. moral consensus, collective consciousness

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36

anomie

moral confusion. egotism (individualism)

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37

Gemeinschaft

refers to a group of individuals mainly characterized by a sense of common identity, close personal relationships, and an attachment to traditional and sentimental concerns. Translated as community. Emotions and sentiments drive social ties and interactions. Has implicit rules. Common in rural, small scale, homogeneous societies. Achieves its equilibrium through morals, social control, and conformism.

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38

Gesellschaft

refers to a group of people mainly characterized by impersonal relations, formal organization, the absence of generally held or binding norms, and a detachment from traditional and sentimental concerns. Translated as society. Rationality is the driving factor. Has explicit rules. Common to large scale, industrial, and cosmopolitan societies. Achieves its equilibrium through laws, police, tribunals, and prisons.

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39

stereotypes

assumptions of what people are like, whether true or false. might be related to pre-judgements (prejudice) or predefinitions of people according to things like gender, class, race, ethnicity, or age

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40

public space

8+ feet

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41

social space

4-8 feet

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42

personal space

2-4 feet

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43

intimate space

<2 feet

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44

Erving Goffman

symbolic interactionalist. three of his important works include the presentation of self in everyday life, asylums: essays on the social situation of mental patients and other inmates, and stigma: notes on the management of spoiled identity

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45

role performance

how a role is played out by an actor in a setting within the limits that the role provides

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46

front stage

the space in which the role is performed

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47

back stage

where we step out of role performances. the credibility of our role performance depends on our success at keeping front stage and back stage separate

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48

audience

who it is we perform the role for

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49

face saving behavior

techniques used by performers to salvage a performance that is going poorly

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50

studied non observance

audience ignores flaws in role performance

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51

teamwork (performance team)

collaboration of two or more people to manage impressions jointly

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52

role conflict

conflicts someone feels between roles because the expectations attached to one role are incompatible with the expectations of another role

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53

role segregation

our efforts to compartmentalize our roles in order to avoid role conflict and so maintain the credibility of our role performances

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54

role strain

conflicts that someone feels within a single role

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55

sensible social world

a community of communities where people form relationships

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56

total institution

formal organizational setting where there is a population of people who are more or less cut off from the outside world. has administrators that control the institution to reach whatever the goal of the institution is

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57

stigma

used to refer to an attribute that is deeply discrediting, but it should be seen that a language of relationships, not attributes, is really needed

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58

abominations of the body

the various physical deformities. in other words, possession of bodies that fall outside the norm of what a normal body is or should do. integrity of body image

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59

blemishes of individual character

perceived as weak will, domineering or unnatural passions, treacherous and rigid beliefs, and dishonesty, these being inferred from a known record of, for example, mental disorder, imprisonment, addiction, alcoholism, homosexuality, unemployment, suicidal attempts, and radical political behavior

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60

tribal

race, nation, and religion. class can also be tribal stigma

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61

thomas theorem

"if people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences". this means that we act according to our definitions of situations

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62

social construction of reality

the process whereby people continuously create, through their actions and interactions, a shared reality that is experienced as objectively factual and subjectively meaningful

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