AP World Modern Unit 1

studied byStudied by 105 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

Monotheism

1 / 98

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

99 Terms

1

Monotheism

Belief in one God

New cards
2

Polytheism

Belief in many gods

New cards
3

Song Dynasty

(960-1279 CE) The Chinese dynasty that placed much more emphasis on civil administration, industry, education, and arts other than military.

New cards
4

Grand Canal in China

The 1,100-mile (1,700-kilometer) waterway linking the Yellow and the Yangzi Rivers. It was begun in the Han period and completed during the Sui Empire.

New cards
5

Footbinding

Practice in Chinese society to mutilate women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; made it easier to confine women to the household.

New cards
6

Filial Piety

In Confucian thought, one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors.

New cards
7

Gunpowder

Invented within China during the 9th century, this substance was became the dominate military technology used to expand European and Asian empires by the 15th century.

New cards
8

Champa Rice

a quick-maturing, drought resistant rice that can allow two harvests, of sixty days each in one growing season.

New cards
9

paper money

legal currency issued on paper; it developed in China as a convenient alternative to metal coins

New cards
10

porcelain

a thin, beautiful pottery invented in China

New cards
11

Confucianism

The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.

New cards
12

Neo-Confucianism

A philosophy that emerged in Song-dynasty China; it revived Confucian thinking while adding in Buddhist and Daoist elements.

New cards
13

Umayyad Dynasty

An Islamic Dynasty based on succession rather than election following the first period of caliphates. Continued advances in the kingdom, venturing as far as China in the East. Fell apart in 750 CE due to internal tensions.

New cards
14

Abbasid Caliphate

(750-1258 CE) The caliphate, after the Umayyads, who focused more on administration than conquering. Had a bureaucracy that any Muslim could be a part of.

New cards
15

Seljuk Empire

An empire formed by Turkish and Persian Sunnis, lasting from 1037 to 1194 .

New cards
16

Christianity

A monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior.

New cards
17

Judaism

A religion with a belief in one god. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. Yahweh was responsible for the world and everything within it. They preserved their early history in the Old Testament.

New cards
18

Islam

A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), and a body of law written in the Quran. Followers are called Muslims.

New cards
19

Delhi Sultanate

The first Islamic government established within India from 1206-1520. Controlled a small area of northern India and was centered in Delhi.

New cards
20

Nasir al-Din Tusi

Persian mathematician and cosmologist who inspired Copernican model of the solar system

New cards
21

'A'ishah al-Ba'uniyyah

Female Arabic poet who wrote The Principles of Sufism

New cards
22

centralized government

A government in which power is concentrated in a central authority to which local governments are subject

New cards
23

Meritocracy

a system in which promotion is based on individual ability or achievement

New cards
24

Bureaucracy

a system of government in which most of the important decisions are made by state officials rather than by elected representatives.

New cards
25

Imperial Bureaucracy

Division of an empire into organized provinces to make it easier to control

New cards
26

Civil Service Exam

In China, it was an exam based on Confucian teachings that was used to select people for various government service jobs in the bureaucracy.

New cards
27

Syncretic

A religion that combines several traditions

New cards
28

Patriarchy

a form of social organization in which a male is the family head and title is traced through the male line

New cards
29

Theraveda Buddhism

closely followed Buddha's original teachings; oldest form of Buddhism

New cards
30

Tibetan Buddhism

Practiced in Tibet

New cards
31

Mahayana Buddhism

Also known as popular Buddhism, is allows people more ways to reach enlightenment and Bodhisattva can help you reach enlightenment.

New cards
32

Chan Buddhism

Known as Zen in Japan; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular with members of elite Chinese society

New cards
33

Silk Road

Caravan routes connecting China and the Middle East across Central Asia and Iran.

New cards
34

4 Noble Truths of Buddhism

suffering us universal, cause of suffering is desire, only way to end suffering is to crush desire and when you end desire you follow the Noble Eight fold Path

New cards
35

Eight-fold Path

Eight steps to end suffering and attain enlightenment according to Buddhist tradition.

New cards
36

Metallurgy

The science and technology of metals

New cards
37

Silk

a valuable cloth, originally made only in China from threads spun by caterpillars called silkworms

New cards
38

Hinduism

A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms

New cards
39

Crusades (1095-1291)

The religious wars between Western Catholic Europe and the Islamic Turks over the holy lands in Jerusalem

New cards
40

Holy Roman Empire

Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806.

New cards
41

Feudalism

A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land

New cards
42

Serf

A person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord

New cards
43

Manor

A large estate, often including farms and a village, ruled by a lord.

New cards
44

Hanseatic League

an organization of north German and Scandinavian cities for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance.

New cards
45

Byzantine Empire

Eastern half of the Roman Empire that survived the fall of the Western half.

New cards
46

The Black Death

A deadly plague that swept through Europe between 1347 and 1351

New cards
47

Hundred Years War

Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families.

New cards
48

Monarchy

A government ruled by a king or queen

New cards
49

Al-Andalus

A Muslim-ruled region in what is now Spain

New cards
50

Alhambra

a palace and fortress built in Granada by the Muslims in the Middle Ages

New cards
51

Jewish Diaspora

the scattering of the Jewish people outside their homeland beginning about 586 BCE

New cards
52

Marco Polo

Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.

New cards
53

Seljuk Turks

nomadic Turks from Asia who conquered Baghdad in 1055 and allowed the caliph to remain only as a religious leader. they governed strictly

New cards
54

Magna Carta

the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215

New cards
55

Renaissance

"rebirth"; following the Middle Ages, a movement that centered on the revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome

New cards
56

Caste System

a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society

New cards
57

Inca

Largest and most powerful Andean empire. Controlled the Pacific coast of South America from Ecuador to Chile from its capital of Cuzco.

New cards
58

Mayans

A Mesoamerican civilization of Central America and southern Mexico. Achievements include mathematics, architecture, and a 365 day a year calendar. They flourished between the 4th and 12th centuries C.E..

New cards
59

Aztecs

Also known as Mexica, they created a powerful empire in central Mexico (1325-1521 C.E.). They forced defeated peoples to provide goods and labor as a tax.

New cards
60

Cahokia

Mississippian settlement near present-day East St. Louis, home to as many as 25,000 Native Americans

New cards
61

Great Zimbabwe

A stone-walled enclosure found in Southeast Africa. Have been associated with trade, farming, and mining.

New cards
62

Hausa states/kingdom

people of northern Nigeria formed these states; formed following the demise of the Songhay Empire & combined Muslim & pagan tradition

New cards
63

Decentralized

governmental power is spread among more than one person or group

New cards
64

scholar gentry

elite, educated bureaucrats who ran the centralized gov't of China

New cards
65

filial piety

In Confucian thought, one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors.

New cards
66

matriarchy

A society ruled or controlled by women

New cards
67

Theocracy

A government controlled by religious leaders

New cards
68

Kin-based societies

Society that governs itself through family and clan relationships

New cards
69

three-field system

a system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farm land was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring crop, and left unplanted.

New cards
70

Heian Period

The era in Japanese history from 794-1185, arts and writing flourished during this time, inspired by Chinese traditions

New cards
71

Mamluks

enslaved, ethnic turks from Central Asia who served as soldiers and bureaucrats in the Islamic world

New cards
72

Sufism

Islamic belief and practice in which Muslims seek to find the truth of divine love and knowledge through direct personal experience of God

New cards
73

Vijayanagar Kingdom

Southern Indian kingdom (1336-1565) that later fell to the Mughals.

New cards
74

Rajput Kingdoms

Collection of kingdoms created by the Huns in northern India

New cards
75

Urdu

Syncretic religion in South Asia, melded Hindi, Arabic, and Farsi. Official language of Pakistan today

New cards
76

Bhakti Movement

Movement that tried to erase the gap between Hinduism and Islam, focused on developing a strong attachment to a particular deity (monotheism), and appealed to women and lower classes

New cards
77

Mississippian Culture

North American civilization of mound builders with a prosperous society

New cards
78

Great Schism

the official split between the Roman Catholic and Byzantine churches that occurred in 1054

New cards
79

Manorial System

an economic system in the Middle Ages that was built around large estates called manors

New cards
80

Mamluk Sultanate

Established by Mamluks who seized power in Egypt

New cards
81

Srivijaya Empire

Hindu Kingdom in Western Indonesia, had a navy and prospered by charging fees for ships traveling between India and China

New cards
82

Majapahit kingdom

Southeast Asian Buddhist kingdom (1293-1520) centered on the island of Java., controlled sea routes

New cards
83

Sinhala dynasties

Dynasty in Sri Lanka, settled by early merchant immigrants from North India. Center of Buddhist study

New cards
84

Khmer Empire

Also known as Angkor Kingdom. Situated near the Mekong River in SE Asia. Had a complex irrigation and drainage system that allowed it to flourish

New cards
85

Sukhothai King

Kingdom in Thailand from 1238-1438, forced the Khmer people out of Angkor Wat

New cards
86

Animism

The belief that bodies of water, animals, trees, and other natural objects have spirits

New cards
87

Incan Empire

a Mesoamerican civilization in the Andes Mountains in South America that by the end of the 1400s was the largest empire in the Americas including much of what is now Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile;

New cards
88

Mit'a System

economic system in Incan society where people paid taxes with their labor and what they produced

New cards
89

Tribute system

payment made by one nation to another in acknowledgment of submission.

New cards
90

woodblock printing

a type of printing in which text is carved into a block of wood and the block is then coated with ink and pressed on the page

New cards
91

Four Noble Truths of Buddhism

All life involves suffering; desire is the cause of suffering; elimination of desire brings an end to suffering; a disciplined life conducted life brings the elimination of desire.

New cards
92

Eightfold Path

In Buddhism, the basic rules of behavior and belief leading to an end of suffering

New cards
93

Shinto

The traditional religion of Japan

New cards
94

Daimyo

A Japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai

New cards
95

Shogun

A military general who ruled Japan in the emperor's name. Had all the power in feudal Japan

New cards
96

Five Pillars of Islam

Declaration of faith, prayer, alms, fasting, and pilgrimage

New cards
97

Shia Islam

minority branch of Islam; belief that only a descendant of Ali (Muhammad's Cousin) can be caliph.

New cards
98

Sunni Islam

Muslims who believe in the successorship of Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali.

New cards
99

Jizya

Poll tax that non-Muslims had to pay when living within a Muslim empire

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 43 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 58 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 59 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(5)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10850 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(51)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard39 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard52 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard42 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard33 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard42 terms
studied byStudied by 29 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard128 terms
studied byStudied by 53 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard50 terms
studied byStudied by 51 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)