whap- contempory era vocab

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Turkification

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165 Terms

1

Turkification

A process of cultural change designed to make all citizens of the empire feel a part of a common Turkish heritage and society

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2

Bolshevik

A group of revolutionary Russian Marxists who took control of Russia's government in November 1917

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3

Communists

people who favor the equal distribution of wealth and the end of all forms of private property

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4

Young Turks

A coalition starting in the late 1870s of various groups favoring modernist liberal reform of the Ottoman Empire. It was against monarchy of Ottoman Sultan and instead favored a constitution. In 1908 they succeed in establishing a new constitutional era

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5

.Mexican Revolution

(1910-1920 CE) Fought over a period of almost 10 years form 1910; resulted in ouster of Porfirio Diaz from power; opposition forces led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata

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6

.Sun Yat-Sen

Chinese nationalist revolutionary, founder and leader of the Guomindang until his death. He attempted to create a liberal democratic political movement in China but was thwarted by military leaders

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7

.Porfirio Diaz

Dictator in Mexico from 1876 to 1911. Overthrown by the Mexican Revolution of 1910

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8

.Francisco Madero

Early leader in the Mexican Revolution; in 1911 became president of Mexico; wanted land ownership and free, honest elections, two years later he was murdered, led to power struggles

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9

Pancho Villa

A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata

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10

.Emiliano Zapata

Revolutionary and leader of peasants in the Mexican Revolution. He mobilized landless peasants in south-central Mexico to seize and divide the lands of the wealthy landowners. Though successful for a time, he was ultimately defeated and assassinated

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11

.The Great War

name originally given to the First World War (1914-1918)

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12

.Archduke Franz Ferdinand

heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo, started World War I

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13

.Triple Entente

A military alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia in the years preceding World War I

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14

.Triple Alliance

An alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in the years before WWI

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15

.Black Hand

Serbian nationalist/terrorist group responsible for the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand which resulted in the start of World War I

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16

.Militarism

A policy of glorifying military power and keeping a standing army always prepared for war

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17

Self-determination

Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves

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18

Stalemate

A situation in which no progress can be made or no advancement is possible

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19

Propaganda

Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause

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20

.Reparations

Payment for war damages

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21

Lusitania

A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war

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22

.Zimmerman Note

secret message from Germany to Mexico, threatening to act together against America. Helps lead U.S. toward war with Germany

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23

.Total War

A conflict in which the participating countries devote all their resources to the war effort

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24

ANZAC

Australian and New Zealand Army Corps

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25

Paris Peace Conference

The great rulers and countries excluding Germany and Russia met in Versailles to negotiate the repercussions of the war, such leaders included Lloyd George (Britain), Woodrow Wilson (America), Clemenceau (France) and Italy. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed and the conference proved unsuccessful

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26

.Big Four

The Big Four were the four most important leaders, and the most important ones at the Paris Peace Conference. They were Woodrow Wilson- USA, David Lloyd George- UK, George Clemenceau- France, and Vittorio Orlando- Italy

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27

.Fourteen Points

A series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I

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28

League of Nations

an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations

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29

Treaty of Versailles

Treaty that ended World War I - most important part was the forced blame on Germany and other allies

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30

Weimar Republic

German republic founded after the WWI and the downfall of the German Empire's monarchy

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31

.Trench Warfare

A form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battlefield

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32

.U-Boat (submarines)

ships that traveled underwater, German U-boats attacked British ships and sank the Lusitania

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33

Inflation

A general and progressive increase in prices

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34

Collectivize

bring under central government control

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35

Great Depression

the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s

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36

New Deal

A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression

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37

.Five-Year Plan

Stalin's economic policy to rebuild the Soviet economy after WWI. tried to improve heavy industry and improve farm output, but resulted in famine

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38

Russian Civil War

1918-1920: conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Red vs. White Army

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39

.Spanish Civil War

In 1936 a rebellion erupted in Spain after a coalition of Republicans, Socialists, and Communists was elected. General Francisco Franco led the rebellion. The revolt quickly became a civil war. The Soviet Union provided arms and advisers to the government forces while Germany and Italy sent tanks, airplanes, and soldiers to help Franco

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40

.Fascism

A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition

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41

Totalitarian State

country where a single party controls the government and every aspect of the lives of the people

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42

Luftwaffe

German Air Force

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43

USSR

Russian federal system controlled by the Communist Party established in 1923

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44

.Soviet Union

A Communist nation, consisting of Russia and 14 other states, that existed from 1922 to 1991

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45

.Francisco Franco

fascist leader of the Spanish revolution, helped by Hitler and Mussolini

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46

Gulag

Russian prison camp for political prisoners

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47

Decolonization

The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence

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48

.Mandate System

Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I; to be administered under League of Nations supervision

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49

.Balfour Declaration

British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI

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50

Civil Disobedience

A form of political participation that reflects a conscious decision to break a law believed to be immoral and to suffer the consequences

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51

.Mohandas Gandhi

A philosopher from India, this man was a spiritual and moral leader favoring India's independence from Great Britain. He practiced passive resistance, civil disobedience and boycotts to generate social and political change

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52

.Jawaharlal Nehru

Indian statesman. He succeeded Mohandas K. Gandhi as leader of the Indian National Congress. He negotiated the end of British colonial rule in India and became India's first prime minister (1947-1964)

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53

.Mao Zedong

(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976

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54

.Chiang Kai-Shek

General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong

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55

.Pan-Arabism

movement in which Arabs sought to unite all Arabs into one state

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56

Indian National Congress

Major Indian political party; began as leading organization of Indian independence movement

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57

Salt March

passive resistance campaign of Mohandas Gandhi where many Indians protested the British tax on salt by marching to the sea to make their own salt

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58

.Chinese Communist Party

Authoritarian party that has ruled China from 1949 to the present

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59

Long March

The 6,000-mile (9,600-kilometer) flight of Chinese Communists from southeastern to northwestern China. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Chinese army under orders from Chiang Kai-shek

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60

.Palestine

A territory in the Middle East on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Disputed with Israel

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61

.Pakistan

a Muslim republic that occupies the heartland of ancient south Asian civilization in the Indus River valley

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62

Neville Chamberlain

Great British prime minister who advocated peace and a policy of appeasement

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63

Kristallnacht

(Night of the Broken Glass) November 9, 1938, when mobs throughout Germany destroyed Jewish property and terrorized Jews

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64

.Lebensraum

Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German people

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65

Anschluss

Union of Austria and Germany

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66

Munich Agreement

Agreement between Chamberlain and Hitler that Germany would not conquer any more land, and if did, would declare war

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67

Rome-Berlin Axis

the alliance between Italy and Germany (Mussolini and Hitler)

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68

Axis Powers

Germany, Italy, Japan

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69

Reichstag

German Parliament

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70

Third Reich

The Third German Empire, established by Adolf Hitler in the 1930s

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71

.Mein Kampf

'My Struggle' by Hitler, later became the basic book of Nazi goals and ideology, reflected obsession

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72

Anti-Semitism

Prejudice against Jews

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73

Appeasement

Accepting demands in order to avoid conflict

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74

Pearl Harbor

Base in Hawaii that was bombed by japan on December 7, 1941, which entered America to enter the war

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75

.Island-hopping

A military strategy used during World War II that involved selectively attacking specific enemy-held islands and bypassing others

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76

D-Day

Allied invasion of France on June 6, 1944

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77

VE Day

May 8, 1945; victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered

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78

Hiroshima/Nagasaki

City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II. Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945)

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79

.VJ Day

"Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945

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80

Nonaggression Pact

An agreement in which nations promise not to attack one another

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81

Atlantic Charter

1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII and to work for peace after the war

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82

Winston Churchill

A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West

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83

.Blitzkrieg

"Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland in 1939

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84

Genocide

Deliberate extermination of a racial or cultural group

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85

Holocaust

a large-scale destruction, especially by fire; a vast slaughter; a burnt offering

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86

Final Solution

Hitler's program of systematically killing the entire Jewish people

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87

Ethnic Cleansing

Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region

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88

Balkanization

Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities

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89

International Criminal Court

A permanent tribunal for war crimes and crimes against humanity

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90

Bosnia

Southern Slavic nation seeking independence; annexation by Austria-Hungary creates war in the Balkans; housed parade that killed Ferdinand

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91

Rwanda

(1995) African nation that experienced genocide against its Tutsi population, carried out by Hutus

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92

.Darfur

a region in western Sudan where ethnic conflict threatened to lead to genocide

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93

Armenians

Christians in the Ottoman Empire, who faced genocide during World War I

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94

.Tutsis & Hutus

Tutsis- the main minority group in Rwanda and Burundi

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95

Hutus- the group that forms the majority in Rwanda and Burundi

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96

Influenza Pandemic

killed almost 30 million worldwide, spread between military camps and to the urban population, stimulated research for vaccines and antibiotics

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97

Nuremberg Laws

1935 laws defining the status of Jews and withdrawing citizenship from persons of non-German blood

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98

.Janjaweed

Black Arabic-speaking militia responsible for most of the Darfur genocide

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99

Tehran Conference

First major meeting between the Big Three (United States, Britain, Russia) at which they planned the 1944 assault on France and agreed to divide Germany into zones of occupation after the war

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100

Yalta Conference

1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister (PM) Winston Churchill, and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war

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