APES Chapter 14-17

studied byStudied by 3 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

Water pollution

1 / 111

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

112 Terms

1

Water pollution

The contamination of streams, rivers, lakes, oceans, or groundwater with substances produced through human activities

New cards
2

Wastewater

Water produced by livestock operations and human activities, including human sewage from toilets and gray water from bathing and washing of clothes and dishes

New cards
3

Point source

A distinct location from which pollution is directly produced

New cards
4

Nonpoint source

A diffuse area that produces pollution

New cards
5

Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)

The amount of oxygen a quantity of water uses over a period of time at specific temperatures

New cards
6

Dead zone

In a body of water, an area with extremely low oxygen concentration and very little life

New cards
7

Eutrophication

A phenomenon in which a body of water becomes rich in nutrients

New cards
8

Cultural eutrophication

An increase in fertility in a body of water, the result of anthropogenic inputs of nutrients

New cards
9

Indicator species

A species that indicates whether or not disease-causing pathogens are likely to be present

New cards
10

Fecal coliform bacteria

A group of generally harmless microorganisms in human intestines that can serve as an indicator species for potentially harmful microorganisms associated with contaminated sewage

New cards
11

Septic system

A relatively small and simple sewage treatment system, made up of a septic tank and a leach field, often used for homes in rural areas

New cards
12

Septic tank

A large container that receives wastewater from a house as part of a septic system

New cards
13

Sludge

Solid waste material from wastewater

New cards
14

Septage

A layer of fairly clear water found in the middle of a septic tank

New cards
15

Leach field

A component of a septic system, made up of underground pipes laid out below the surface of the ground

New cards
16

Manure lagoon

Human-made pond lined with rubber built to handle large quantities of manure produced by livestock

New cards
17

Acid deposition

Acids deposited on Earth as rain and snow or as gases and particles that attach to the surfaces of plants, soil, and water

New cards
18

Perchlorates

A group of harmful chemicals used for rocket fuel

New cards
19

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

A group of industrial compounds used to manufacture plastics and insulate electrical transformers, and responsible for many environmental problems

New cards
20

Thermal pollution

Nonchemical water pollution that occurs when human activities cause a substantial change in the temperature of water

New cards
21

Thermal shock

A dramatic change in water temperature that can kill organisms

New cards
22

Clean Water Act

Legislation that supports the "protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, and wildlife and recreation in and on the water" by maintaining and, when necessary, restoring the chemical, physical, and biological properties of surface waters

New cards
23

Safe Drinking Water Act

Legislation that sets the national standards for safe drinking water

New cards
24

Maximum contaminant level (MCL)

The standard for safe drinking water established by the EPA under the Safe Drinking Water Act

New cards
25

Air pollution

The introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or microorganisms into the atmosphere at concentrations high enough to harm plants, animals, and materials such as buildings, or to alter ecosystems

New cards
26

Particulate matter (PM)

Solid or liquid particles suspended in air; also known as particles and particulates

New cards
27

Haze

Reduced visibility

New cards
28

Photochemical oxidant

A class of air pollutants formed as a result of sunlight acting on compounds such as nitrogen oxides

New cards
29

Ozone (O3)

A secondary pollutant made up of three oxygen atoms bound together

New cards
30

Smog

A type of air pollution that is a mixture of oxidants and particulate matter

New cards
31

Photochemical smog

Smog that is dominated by oxidants such as ozone. Also known as Los Angeles-type smog; Brown smog

New cards
32

Sulfurous smog

Smog dominated by sulfur dioxide and sulfate compounds. Also known as London-type smog; Gray smog; Industrial smog

New cards
33

Volatile organic compound (VOCs)

An organic compound that evaporates at typical atmospheric temperatures

New cards
34

Primary pollutant

A polluting compound that comes directly out of a smokestack, exhaust pipe, or natural emission source

New cards
35

Secondary pollutant

A primary pollutant that has undergone transformation in the presence of sunlight, water, oxygen, or other compounds

New cards
36

Thermal inversion

A situation in which a relatively warm layer of air at mid-altitude covers a layer of cold, dense air below

New cards
37

Inversion layer

The layer of warm air that traps emissions in a thermal inversion

New cards
38

Asbestos

A long, thin, fibrous silicate mineral with insulating properties, which can cause cancer when inhaled

New cards
39

Sick building syndrome

A buildup of toxic pollutants in an airtight space, seen in newer buildings

New cards
40

Waste

Material outputs from a system that are not useful or consumed

New cards
41

Municipal solid waste (MSW)

Refuse collected by municipalities from households, small businesses, and institutions

New cards
42

Waste stream

The flow of solid waste that is recycled, incinerated, placed in a solid waste landfill, or disposed of in another way

New cards
43

Reduce, reuse, recycle

A popular phrase promoting the idea of diverting materials from the waste stream. Also known as the three Rs

New cards
44

Source reduction

An approach to waste management that seeks to cut waste by reducing the use of potential waste materials in the early stages of design and manufacture

New cards
45

Reuse

Using a product or material that was intended to be discarded

New cards
46

Recycling

The process by which materials destined to become municipal solid waste (MSW) are collected and converted into raw material that is then used to produce new objects

New cards
47

Closed-loop recycling

Recycling a product into the same product

New cards
48

Open-loop recycling

Recycling one product into a different product

New cards
49

Composting

Creation of organic matter (humus) by decomposition under controlled conditions to produce an organic-rich material that enhances soil structure, cation exchange capacity, and fertility

New cards
50

Leachate

Liquid that contains elevated levels of pollutants as a result of having passed through municipal solid waste (MSW) or contaminated soil

New cards
51

Sanitary landfill

An engineered ground facility designed to hold municipal solid waste (MSW) with as little contamination of the surrounding environment as possible

New cards
52

Tipping fee

A fee charged for disposing of material in a landfill or incinerator

New cards
53

Siting

The designation of a landfill location, typically through a regulatory process involving studies, written reports, and public hearings

New cards
54

Incineration

The process of burning waste materials to reduce volume and mass, sometimes to generate electricity or heat

New cards
55

Ash

The residual nonorganic material that does not combust during incineration

New cards
56

Bottom ash

Residue collected at the bottom of the combustion chamber in a furnace

New cards
57

Fly ash

The residue collected from the chimney or exhaust pipe of a furnace

New cards
58

Waste-to-energy

A system in which heat generated by incineration is used as an energy source rather than released into the atmosphere

New cards
59

Hazardous waste

Liquid, solid, gaseous, or sludge waste material that is harmful to humans or ecosystems

New cards
60

Superfund act

The common name for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); a 1980 U.S. federal act that imposes a tax on the chemical and petroleum industries, funds the cleanup of abandoned and nonoperating hazardous waste sites, and authorizes the federal government to respond directly to the release or threatened release of substances that may pose a threat to human health or the environment

New cards
61

Brownfields

Contaminated industrial or commercial sites that may require environmental cleanup before they can be redeveloped or expanded

New cards
62

Life-cycle analysis

A systems tool that looks at the materials used and released throughout the manufacturing, use, and disposal of a product - from the procurement of raw materials through their manufacturer, use, and disposal. Also known as Cradle-to-grave- analysis

New cards
63

Integrated waste management

An approach to waste disposal that employs several waste reduction, management, and disposal strategies in order to reduce the environmental impact of MSW

New cards
64

Disease

Any impaired function of the body with a characteristic set of symptoms

New cards
65

Infectious disease

A disease caused by a pathogen

New cards
66

Acute disease

A disease that rapidly impairs the functioning of an organism

New cards
67

Chronic disease

A disease that slowly impairs the functioning of an organism

New cards
68

Epidemic

A situation in which a pathogen causes a rapid increase in disease

New cards
69

Pandemic

An epidemic that occurs over a large geographic region

New cards
70

Plague

An infectious disease caused by a bacterium that is carried by fleas

New cards
71

Malaria

An infectious disease caused by one of several species of protists in the genus Plasmodium

New cards
72

Tuberculosis

A highly contagious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily infects the lungs

New cards
73

Emergent infectious disease

An infectious disease that has not been previously described or has not been common for at least 20 years

New cards
74

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

An infectious disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

New cards
75

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

A type of virus that causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

New cards
76

Ebola Hemorrhagic fever

An infectious disease with high death rates, caused by the Ebola virus

New cards
77

Mad cow disease

A disease in which prions mutate into deadly pathogens and slowly damage a cow's nervous system

New cards
78

Prion

A small, beneficial protein that occasionally mutates into a pathogen

New cards
79

Swine flu

A type of flu caused by the H1N1 virus

New cards
80

Bird flu

A type of flu caused by the H5N1 virus

New cards
81

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

A type of flu caused by a coronavirus

New cards
82

West Nile virus

A virus that lives in hundreds of species of birds and is transmitted among birds by mosquitoes

New cards
83

Neurotoxin

A chemical that disrupts the nervous systems of animals

New cards
84

Carcinogen

A chemical that causes cancer

New cards
85

Mutagen

A type of carcinogen that causes damage to the genetic material of a cell

New cards
86

Teratogen

A chemical that interferes with the normal development of embryos or fetuses

New cards
87

Allergen

A chemical that causes allergic reactions

New cards
88

Endocrine disruptor

A chemical that interferes with the normal functioning of hormones in an animal's body

New cards
89

Dose-response study

A study that exposes organisms to different amounts of a chemical and then observes a variety of possible responses, including mortality or changes in behavior or reproduction

New cards
90

Acute study

An experiment that exposes organisms to an environmental hazard for a short duration

New cards
91

Chronic study

An experiment that exposes organisms to an environmental hazard for a long duration

New cards
92

LD50

The lethal dose of a chemical that kills 50 percent of the individuals in a dose-response study

New cards
93

Sublethal effect

The effect of an environmental hazard that is not lethal, but which may impair an organism's behavior, physiology, or reproduction

New cards
94

ED50

The effective dose of a chemical that causes 50 percent of the individuals in a dose-response study to display a harmful, but nonlethal, effect

New cards
95

Retrospective study

A study that monitors people who have been exposed to an environmental hazard at some time in the past

New cards
96

Prospective study

A study that monitors people who might become exposed to harmful chemicals in the future

New cards
97

Synergistic interaction

A situation in which two risks together cause more harm than expected based on the separate effects of each risk alone

New cards
98

Route of exposure

The way in which an individual might come into contact with an environmental hazard

New cards
99

Solubility

How well a chemical dissolves in a liquid

New cards
100

Bioaccumulation

An increased concentration of a chemical within an organism over time

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9500 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(63)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard45 terms
studied byStudied by 29 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard68 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard53 terms
studied byStudied by 102 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard39 terms
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard54 terms
studied byStudied by 60 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)