Chapter 1

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Anatomy

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44 Terms

1

Anatomy

The study of the structure of body parts and their relationship to one another

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2

Physiology

Study of the function of body parts; how they work to carry out life-sustaining activities

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3

Gross/macroscopic anatomy

The study of large, visible structures

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4

Microscopic anatomy

Deals with structures to small to be seen by the naked eye

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5

Developmental anatomy

Studies anatomical and physiological development throughout life

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6

Chemical level

atoms, molecules and organelles

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7

Cellular level

single cell

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8

Tissue level

groups of similar cells

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9

Organ level

contains two or more types of tissues

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10

Organ system level

organs that work closely together

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11

Organismal level

all organ systems combined to make the whole organism

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12

Maintenance of life involves:

-maintaining boundaries -movement -responsiveness -digestion -metabolism -excretion -reproduction -growth

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13

Maintaining boundaries

Separation between internal and external environments must exist

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14

Movement

Muscular system allows for this

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15

Contractility

Movement at the cellular level

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16

Responsiveness

ability to sense and respond to stimuli

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17

Digestion

Breakdown of ingested foodstuffs, followed by absorption of simple molecules into blood

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18

Metabolism

All chemical reactions that occur in body cells

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19

Excretion

Removal of wastes from metabolism and digestion

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20

Reproduction

At the cellular level, this involves division of cells for growth and repair

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21

Growth

Increase in size of a body part or organism

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22

Survival needs:

-nutrients -oxygen -water -normal body temperature -appropriate atmospheric pressure

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23

Homeostasis

The maintenance of relatively stable internal condition despite continuous changes in environement

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Receptor

-sensor -responds to stimuli -monitors environment

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25

Control center

-receives input from receptor -determines appropriate response

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26

Effector

-receives output from control center -provides the means to respond -provides either a negative or positive feedback

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27

Negative feedback

-most used feedback mechanism in the body -response reduces or shuts off original stimulus

ex. regulation of body temp; regulation of glucose by insulin

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28

Positive feedback

-response enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus -usually controls infrequent events that do not require continuous adjustment

ex. enhancement of labor contractions by oxytocin

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Homeostasis imbalance

-increases risk of disease -contributes to changes associated with aging -if negative feedback mechanisms become overwhelmed, destructive positive feedback mechanisms may take over

ex. Heart failure

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30

Superior (cranial)

Towards the head end or upper end of the body

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Inferior (caudal)

Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure of a body

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Anterior (ventral)

Toward or at the front of the body

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Posterior (dorsal)

Toward or at the back of the body

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34

Medial

Toward or at the midline of the body

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35

Lateral

Away from the midline of the body

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36

Intermediate

Between a more medial and a more lateral structure

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37

Proximal

Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

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38

Distal

Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

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39

Superficial (external)

Toward or at the body surface

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40

Deep (internal)

Away from the body surface

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41

Coronal/frontal plane

Separates anterior and posterior structures

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42

Sagittal/lateral plane

Separates the right and left side of the body

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Axial/transverse plane

Separates superior and inferior structures

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Oblique plane

Separated diagonally

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