Week 1 - Intro

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Academic Adjustment

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Psychology

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33 Terms

Academic Adjustment

One's ability to adequately cope w/ demands of post-secondary education

Factors that impact academic adjustment

Loneliness, Financial Stress, Class Format, Freedom, Social Opportunities, Personal and Emotional Problems

Why don't Trigger Warnings work?

Study showed that trigger warnings did not impact emotional reactions to potentially upsetting content --> when show participants graphic photo & measure anxiety before vs after

Systematic Observation

Careful observation of natural world to better understand it, provide basic data, basis for science

Empirical methods

data gathering tied to actual Measurement and Observation

Essential Elements of Science

Systematic Observation = core of science, Observation leads to hypotheses we can test, Science is democratic, Science is cumulative

Code of Ethics Include...

Informed Consent, Confidentiality, Privacy, Benefits > Risks, Debriefing (needed if deception)

Induction

drawing general conclusions from specific observations

Features of Scientific Theories and Data

Accuracy, Consistency, Scope, Simplicity, Fruitfulness, Falsifiability

Inductive Reasoning

Based on Probabilities, used in everyday situation, set of observations --> general conclusion

Deductive Reasoning

General principles applied to specific instances

Null Hypothesis Significance Testing

Assesses probability that collected data would be same if there no relationship between variables

Null Hypothesis vs Alternative Hypothesis

variable not related vs variables are related

Type 1 vs Type 2 Error

1 = found relationship when none, 2 = found no relationship when one exists

Distribution

spread of values

What means if p-value < 0.05

If study repeated 100 times, same result occurring by chance fewer than 5 times

Scientific Theory

comprehensive framework for making sense of evidence regarding a particular phenomenon

Is science objective?

no, affected by values and interpretations

Levels of analysis

1 phenomenon can be explained at different levels simultaneously

Empiricism

Knowledge from experience, John Locke, Thomas Reid

Psychophysics

relationship between physical stimuli and human perception, Ernst Weber, Gustav Fechner

Wilhelm Wundt

Development of Modern Psychology

Introspection

procedure with goal to identify elements of consciousness

Structuralism

Study contents of mind, Edward Bradford Titchener

Functionalism

William James, G. Stanly Hall, James McKeen Cattell, study activities of mind

G Stanley Hall

founded: first psych lab in America and APA, study adaptation and human development

Francis Cecil Sumner

1st African American PhD in Psychology in America

Gestalt Psychology

Study whole > individual aspects

Behaviorism

Reject reference to mind, should study overt and observable behavior --> laws of learning, John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, Ivan Pavlov

What Professionalized Psychology?

Organization of American Association for Applied Psychology & American Psychological Association --> standards, WW2 --> mental health need of nation

Scientist-practitioner model of training

emphasize development of research & clinical skills

Scholar-practitioner model

model of training professional psychologists emphasize clinical practice

Social Issues Psychology is involved in

Sex Differences, menstruation, school segregation, homosexuality