HAHP 2000 Test 1

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Characteristics of the Lifespan Perspective

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148 Terms

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Characteristics of the Lifespan Perspective

lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, contextual

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Life long development

no one age period dominates in development.

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Multidimensional Development

Development consists of cognitive (mental), biological (physical changes), and socioemotional (intra/inter personal)dimensions

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multidirectional development

Has the Critical Period and the Sensitive Period

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5

Critical period of development

an optimal period early in the life when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development

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Sensitive period of development

This is the period when experience makes permanent alterations. This is at a young age

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Plastic Development

Involves the capacity to change development throughout the lifespan

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Multidisciplinary development

Psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, neuroscientists, and medical researchers all want to research development past the lifespan

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development involves growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss

Involves conflicts and competition among three goals of human development

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10

Development is a co-construction of biology, culture, and the individual

development comes from biological, cultural, and environmental factors which influence each other

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11

Development is contextual

All development occurs within a context e.g. families, schools, peer groups, churches, etc.

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12

normative age-graded influences

influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group

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13

normative history-graded influences

influences that are common to people of a particular generation because of historical circumstances

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14

non-normative life events

Unusual occurrences that have a major impact on a person's life. The occurrence, pattern, and sequence of these events are not applicable to many individuals.

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15

chronicle age

number of years since birth

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16

biological age

A person's age in terms of biological health.

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17

psychological age

an individual's adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age

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18

social age

connectedness with others and the social roles individuals adopt

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median age

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20

Dr. Brad Meisner's Research

focuses on the interaction of biological, phychological, and social dimensions of aging. Including adult development and older adulthood

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21

Nature vs. Nurture

The debate about the extent to which development is influenced by nature and by nurture.

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22

continuity-discontinuity

the debate about the extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity)

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23

stability and change

Do our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become a different person as we age?

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24

Theory

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events

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Hypothesis

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

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psychoanalytic theory

Theories holding that development depends primarily on the unconscious mind and is heavily couched in emotion, that behaviour is merely a surface characteristic, that it is important to analyze the symbolic meanings of behaviour, and that early experiences are important in development.

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27

Freud's Theory

basic principles include the unconscious mind, early childhood experiences, and influence of sexual drives, includes id/ego/superego and psychosexual stages

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Erikson's Psychosocial Theory

Primary motivation for behaviour is based on social outcomes. The stage theory of psychosocial development, lifespan consists of eight dilemmas that must be solved correctly in order to solve the next dilemma

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29

Piaget's stages of cognitive development

  1. sensorimotor

  2. preoperational

  3. concrete operational

  4. formal operational

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30

sensoriomotor stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

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preoperational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic

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concrete operational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events

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formal operational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 11) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

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34

Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory

the approach that emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members of a culture where knowledge is situated and collaborative

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35

Pavlov's Classical Conditioning

a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to produce a response originally produced by another stimulus

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Skinner's Classical Conditioning

consequences of behaviour change likelihood of the behaviour's future occurrence where rewards increase the likelihood of reoccurrence (punishments decrease this chance)

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37

Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory

Holds that behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors are the key factors in development

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38

Ethology

Focuses on responses to environment, physiological makeup, communication, & evolutionary aspects

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39

Charles Darwin

one of the first ethologists and focused on evolution and natural selection

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40

Konrad Lorenz

researcher who focused on critical attachment periods in baby birds, a concept he called imprinting

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41

John Bowlby

argued that infants innately channel signals to primary caregivers to form attachment

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42

Carl Rogers

Developed "client-centered" therapy

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43

Congruence and Incongruity

the relationship between the ideal and perceived self

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44

Abraham Maslaw

developed the idea that there is a hierarchy of human needs

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45

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

(level 1) Physiological Needs, (level 2) Safety and Security, (level 3) Relationships, Love and Affection, (level 4) Self Esteem, (level 5) Self Actualization

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46

the bio-ecological approach

Urie Brofenbrenner and his evaluation of the bio-ecological approach

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47

Brofenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory

views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment

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48

Brofenbrenners Levels

The individual: gender, age, health, SES Microsystem: family, school, groups, neighbourhood Mesosystem: relationship between the microsystem factors Exosystem: other social settings Macrosystem: attitudes/ideologies of the culture Chronosystem: patterning of events and transitions over one's life

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49

dynamic systems approach

a view of human development as an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between the physical, cognitive, and psychosocial influences. Challenges can encourage development

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50

evolutionary psychology

the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection. Nature/Nurture

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51

neuroscience and neuroplasticity

focuses on the brain, nervous system, and spinal cord

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52

positive psychology

the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive

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53

the eclectic approach

an approach to psychotherapy that uses techniques from various forms of therapy. Gives a more comprehensive explanation

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54

natural selection

A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.

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55

linkage analysis

goal is to discover the location of a gene in relation to a known marker gene. Often used in the search for disease related genes

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56

sex-linked genes

a gene that is carried on the X or Y chromosome. X-linked genes are more severe in males as they only have one X chromosome.

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57

Colour Blindness, Hemophilia

Two conditions associated with sex linked patterns of inheritance

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polygenetic inheritance

personal traits or physical properties that are influenced by many genes working in combination - eye color, hair color, height, and skin color

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59

Down Syndrome

a condition of intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.

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60

Fragile X Syndrome

A genetic disorder involving an abnormality in the X chromosome, often resulting in intellectual disabilities and physical abnormalities.

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XXY (Klinefelter Syndrome)

An extra X chromosome causes physical abnormalities

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XO Syndrome (Turner Syndrome)

A missing X chromosome in females can cause intellectual disabilities and sexual underdevelopment

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XYY syndrome

chromosomal disorder in which the male has an extra Y chromosome, can cause above average height

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cystic fibrosis

Glandule dysfunction that interferes with mucus production; breathing and digestion are hampered, resulting in a shortened life span

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65

diabetes

A condition in which the body is unable to produce enough insulin, causing an abnormal metabolism of sugar

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66

Hemophilia

An X-linked recessive disorder in which blood fails to clot properly, leading to excessive bleeding if injured.

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67

Huntington's disease

Genetic disorder that causes progressive deterioration of brain cells. caused by a dominant allele. symptoms do not appear until about the age of 30.

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68

PKU (phenylketonuria)

a condition that makes it impossible for babies to metabolize certain proteins, if left untreated, can cause intellectual disabilities

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69

sickle cell anemia

a genetic disorder in which blood cells take on an abnormal curved or "sickle" shape

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70

spina bifida

Neural tube disorder that causes brain and spine variations

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71

Tay-Sachs disease

Deceleration of mental and physical development caused by an accumulation of lipids in the nervous system. Child will usually die before age 5.

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72

amniocentesis

needle puncture of the amniotic sac to withdraw amniotic fluid for analysis

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73

ultrasound sonography

high frequency sound waves produces image of fetus

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74

Chronic Villi Sampling

small sample of the placenta is tested

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75

maternal serum screening

Blood test used to see if a pregnant woman is at increased risk for a child with birth defects

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76

Fetal MRI

Used to obtain more detailed images of the fetus than ultrasound

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77

Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT)

an analysis of DNA in the placenta that reveals the genetic profile of the unborn child

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78

IVF (in vitro fertilization)

procedure that allows for mother's ova to be fertilized outside of body and then implanted back into the uterus for development and birth.

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infertility

the inability to concieve naturally after 12 months of unprotected (heterosexual) sex

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80

stem cells

unspecialized cells that retain the ability to become a wide variety of specialized cells

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81

behaviour genetics

seeks to discover the influence of hereditary and environment on individual differences in human traits and development

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82

epigenetic view

emphasizes that development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional interchange between heredity and environment

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83

Dr. Bombay's Research

Is studying the intergenerational transitions of trauma and the role of resilience in Canadas indigenous people. Traumatic experiences can negatively affect a child's development interfering with the expression of the individuals DNA

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84

germinal period

The first two weeks of prenatal development after conception, characterized by rapid cell division and the beginning of cell differentiation.

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85

embryonic period

the period from 2 to 8 weeks after fertilization, during which the major organs and structures of the organism develop

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86

fetal period

the time from about eight weeks after conception until the birth of the child

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87

the placenta

Disk-shaped group of tissues in which small blood vessels from the mother and the offspring intertwine but do not join

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umbilical cord

contains two arteries and one vein, and connects the baby to the placenta

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amnion

Innermost sac surrounding the developing fetus

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90

neurogenesis

the formation of new neurons

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91

neural migration

the movement of neurons from one part of the fetal brain to their more permanent destination; occurs during months 3-5 of the fetal stage.

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92

neural connectivity

the connections between neurons through which brain systems interact

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neural tube

develops out of the ectoderm and closes during the 4th week after conception. If it fails to close, can lead to birth defects. If it develops properly, neurogenesis and neuronal migration occur.

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94

Teratogens

agents, such as chemicals and viruses, can reach the fetus during prenatal development and cause harm. Most harmful during organogenesis (3-8 weeks)

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95

Caffine's affects on fetus

increases chance of miscarriage

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96

Alcohol's effects on fetus

fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

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97

nicotine effects on fetus

pre-term births, low birth weights, respiratory problems, SIDS, ADHD

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98

cocaine effects on fetus

low birth weight; lower length and head circumference

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99

Methamphetamine effects on fetus

low birth weight. Developmental/behavioural problems, death

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100

cannabis effects on fetus

lower IQ, depression

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