History of Psych Ch11

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gurus of Neobehaviorism

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gurus of Neobehaviorism

edward tolem and clark hull

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neo-behaviorism was founded in three beliefs

  1. the core of psychology is the studying of learning(aka conditioning)

  2. most behavior can be accounted for by the Laws of Conditioning

  3. psychology must adopt the principle of operationism

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operationism

-key feature in neo behaviorism -purpose was to render the language & terminology of science more objectively and precise -validity of scientific findings depends on validity of operational measurements

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GIGO

-garbage in, garbage out -first used in computer science and psych adopted it -goal was to avoid garbage in -rid of pseudoscience problems -if concept can't be measured under a controlled conditioned it was considered a pseudo problem

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doctrine that a physical concept can be defined in precise terms related to the set of operations

operationism

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purposive behavior in animals and men (1932)

-edward tolem -made this bc he wasn't satisfied with Watson's ideals -term 'purposive behavior' indicated that behavior was objective and go directive -behavior was never for the heck of it, it always had a purpose

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edward tolem's five independent variables that cause behavior

  1. age

  2. genetics

  3. environmental stimuli

  4. physiological drive

  5. any type of previous training

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even though he was a behaviorist, Tolem is recognized more as a

forerunner of the cognitive psychology movement

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Clark Hull

-behaviorist psychologist -described his form of behavior in mechanistic terms -looked at behavior as both automatic( it's gonna happen) & capable to being reduced to the language of physics -thought behaviorists should view their subjects as machines

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Drive Theory( Clark Hull)

-behavior results from a drive and is activated by one's bodily needs -reinforcement is necessary for learning to occur -reducing the drive is the only basis for reinforcement

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Drive Theory explained in simpler terms

your body has this level of homeostasis for food and nurture; you get below that level and your body activates a state known as hunger( which is called a drive). when you eat you bring that level back up to homeostasis, bringing the drive to peace

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BF Skinner

-neobehaviorism movement -one of the last well known neobehaviorists -considered as one of the giants of psych who made a permanent mark on it

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Skinner's Early Years

-grew up in the same community as his parents and attended the same school they did -had an affECtionAte and gLAMroUS childhood(not really) -dad was a hotshot lawyer who made the mistake of defending a murderer who was really guilty -town turned against him and he got a job as a coal miner -mom didn't really like the job and left(gold digger) -was very religious( mmmm sure)

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At 14yrs, Skinner began to test religion by standing and jumping off his bed

-reasoned if God really existed he'd keep Skinner from hitting the floor -did this exercise 6-7 times -saw it failed and came to conclusion that God didn't exist -mom was hella responsible for this don't ask how but I just know

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Skinner graduated from Hamilton College in New York with a degree in English

-after trying to pursue a writing career he saw it failed -read Pavlov and Watson and became interested in experimental psych

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graduated from Harvard in 1931 with a PhD in psychology

-tried to spell our behaviorism in 1938 in The Behavior of Organism -book was ignored( it sold 80 copies in 40yrs) -today book is called The Book that Changed Modern Psychology

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1953 Skinner's Science and Human Behavior

-bigger hit than first book -laid out his ideals about behaviorism in more practical forms t

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he strength of an operate behavior increases when it's followed by a presenting reinforcing stimuli

law of acquisition

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socio-behaviorism( 1960-today)

-3rd and final phase of behaviorism -accessed the cognitive science of psychology

  • alfred banduar and julia ritter

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reinforce the affects behavior is the individual in consciously aware of what's being reinforced and expects the reinforcement to reoccur

social cognitive theory

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alfred bandura

-popular for his famous bobo doll study -social cognitive theory

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first psychologist to use the term social learning theory was

rotter not bandura -rotter emphasizes cognitive processes more than bandura

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how much control you have over an event and how you react to the amount of control you have developed by Rotter

Locus of Control

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