Chapter 11-12

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Staple Crops In the South (By Area)

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Staple Crops In the South (By Area)

  • upper south relied on tobacco (unstable prices and depleted soil caused decline of tobacco)

  • old tobacco region turned to wheat, tobacco center moved west

  • southern region relied on rice (needs a lot of irrigation + long growing season)

  • gulf coast: sugar (labor intensive)

  • coastal southwest: long-staple (sea island) cotton

  • short staple cotton: more versatile cotton - cotton gin made mass cultivation possible (known to deplete soil)

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Effects of Cotton Production Increase

  • shift of economic power from upper to lower south

  • cotton became 2/3 of us exports

  • increase slavery in deep south

  • sell of slaves became important part of upper south

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Domestic Slave Trade

  • domestic slave trade increases cus international slave trade barred in 1808

  • migration methods:

    • coastal system: through atlantic seaports

    • inland commerce: using river and roads (slave coffles)

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Planter Elite

  • 2 elite groups

    • traditional aristocrats of the old upper south

    • market driven entrepreneurs in new lower south (invested in cotton) increasing power

  • made a large effort to portray themselves as aristocrats

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Industry (or lack thereof) in the south

  • manufacturing in Upper South

  • merchants and brokers accompany the agriculture industry

  • south depended more and more on manufacturers, merchants, and professionals of the North

  • South has inadequate infrastructure to have own industry - i.e bad transportation

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De Bow’s Review

  • newspaper written by James B. D. De Bow

  • advocated for southern economic independence from north

    • colonial dependency benefited elite but hurt poor farmers

  • said south should invest in industrialization

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Reasons for colonial dependency

  • profitability of agriculture

  • investment in land and not industry

  • values against growth of cities and industry (cavaliers)

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  • white men adopted code of chivalry, dignity + manliness are rly important

  • Brooks v. Sumner - cane incident

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The Southern Lady

  • lives centered home

  • subordinate to men

    • George Fitzhugh: compared women to children in needing to be controlled

  • family = principle economic and social unit of south - few opportunities to look beyond

  • less access to education

  • high birth rate but high infant and mother mortality

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Plain Folk

  • owned few/no slaves

  • subsistence farming

  • no educational opportunities

  • small farmers depend on local plantation aristocracy - muted class tension

  • class tension further muted cus even the bottom felt superior than African Americans

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“Hill People”/ “Sandhillers”

  • live in appalachian

  • cut off from commercial/plantation world - wake up to reality

  • hated planter aristocracy + slavery b/c felt it threatened freedom

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Federal government’s role in expansion of slavery

  • Louisiana purchase

  • removing natives

  • annexing Texas + Mexican territories

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Slave Code

  • slaves had no rights + many restrictions on how they live

    • no property

    • needed permission to leave property

    • no congregations

    • no education

  • laws not enforced very strictly, punishments enforced by masters so slaves lived in varying conditions

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Slave Labor systems

  • Task System: old south, less rigorous, assigned one task then open rest of day

  • Gang System: new south all day working, assigning work “gang”, closely supervised by black drivers/white overseers

    • increased cotton cultivation but exhausted soil

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Paternal Defense of Slavery

  • counter abolitionism

  • used by southern elite to defend slavery

  • benevolent social system and a “positive good based on their understanding of Christian ideology

  • christianization

  • housing, clothing, and food

  • paternal nature of slavery: slaves relid on master for survival - instrument of white control

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Life under slavery

  • living conditions harsh but livable

  • hard labor intensive days, esp for women who also had to do domestic/child-rearing rate

  • high mortality rates

  • slave population increased through natural reproduction

  • field vs. domestic slaves (close proximity w/ masters)

  • female household slaves often sexually abused

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Slavery in the cities

  • urban slaves in coastal cities in the south were less supervised

  • intermingled w/ whites and freemen, depending on slave code

    • racial solidarity

  • slaves hired out on contract cus there’s less immigrant population to make up common laborers

    • most made up artisan class or skilled workers

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Free African Americans

  • could buy freedom or be freed by masters (manumission)

  • amount of free slaves in 1790 - 8%, 1820-40 - 13%, 1860 11%

    • decrease in 1860. caused by tightening of laws on free blacks + laws that made freeing slaves more difficult

  • half of all freemen in the north were kind of accepted and were kind of successful

  • laws regardless closed off many occupations + banned assembling

    • accused of crimes, no jury, had to have free papers

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The Slave Trade

  • foreign slave trade banned in 1808 (up to that point South Carolina was the largest slave market)

  • professional slave trade: transfer of slaves from upper to lower south

  • domestic slave trade - inhumane (seperated families)

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Slave Resistance

  • Amistad mutiny - slaves took over spanish ship in 1839 (captured but then freed)

  • Prosser Rebellion - killed whites in virginia (perpetrators killed)

    • leads to increased slave laws

  • Nat Turner Rebellion - killed whites W(they were executed)

    • instilled widespread fear of revolt: sometimes: reduced white master’s use of violence

  • other forms of rebellion: running away (risky) underground railroad, refusal to work hard (sabotage)

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Language and Music in slave society

  • common language: pidgin/gullag (mix of african words + english)

    • makes community more homogenous

  • music is important part of black culture

    • slave spirituals

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African American Religion

  • culture was based on evangelical christianity

  • developed their own version of christianity by incorporating African religious traditions (i.e voodoo)

  • used imagery of christian salvation as hope for freedom

  • African Methodist Episcopal Church - oldest independent african american church

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The slave family

  • no legal marriages

    • had own traditions like jumping broomstick + naming kids

  • families often broken apart - caused extended fictive kinship networrks

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Romanticism in Painting

  • American artists influenced by romanticism and often portrayed the nation’s landscapes

  • Hudson River School - the first great school of American painters in NY

  • Thomas Moran and Albert Bierstadt

  • liberation of the human spirit

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James Fenimore Cooper

  • novelist

  • evocation of American wilderness

  • “the last of the Mohicans”

    • portrayed disorder of the American West

    • challenges/dangers of American expansion

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Walt Whitman

  • poems celebrating democracy - very spirited

  • break individual barriers

  • “leaves of grass”

  • individualism but not isolationism: communal living

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Herman Melville

  • "Moby Dick”

  • more pessimistic about the quest for liberation

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Southern Writing

  • more romantic cus it romanticized southern plantation life

  • southern literary capitol: Charleston

  • William Gilmore Simms: nationalism - defended slavery

  • writers on the fringe of plantation society focused more on ordinary people and poor whites - included vulgar humor

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  • american transcendentalists influenced by Emmanual Kant

  • Individuals should transcend rationalism and find truths through individual lived experience

  • followers are mostly the new england upper and middle class

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Ralph Waldo emerson

  • first major transcendentalist

  • known for his lectures (Lyceum Circuit) and essays

  • argued for communion with the natural world + self reliance

  • criticized industrialization

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Henry David Thoreau

  • society = repressive

  • people should work for self-realization

  • “Walden”/”Life in the woods”

  • rejected modernization in favor of living simply + embracing nature

  • civil disobedience/non-conformity

  • influenced Gandhi and MLK

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Defense of Nature

  • Transcendentalists feared the effects of new capitalism/modernization on the natural world

  • believed that humans separated from nature lose their humanity

  • First American environmentalists - inspired by the destructive construction of the Erie Canal

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Brook Farm

  • experimental community created by transcendentalist George Ripley

  • all residents would share equally in labor and leisure - Ripley believed leisure was important to the cultivation of self

  • people could develop minds and souls and uplift society

  • intellectual hotspot for transcendentalists

  • experiment failed but passion for individual freedom lived on through abolitionism

  • inspired by Charles Fourier

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“New Harmony”

  • experimental community created by Robert Owen

  • socialist

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Margaret Fuller

  • transcendentalist who questioned gender roles

  • “Women in the 19th century”

  • believed women should have psychological and social independence

  • believed new era was coming in relations between men and women

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Oneida Community

  • perfectionism

  • established by John Humphrey Noyes in upstate NY

  • complex marriage - everyone married to each other, mated to maximize traits

  • children raised communally

  • made silverware

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the shakers

  • founded by An Lee

  • strict government

  • tried to take away sins of jealousy, greed, and desire: complete celibacy: the only way to grow = conversion and adoption

  • matriarchy

  • common ownership of land

  • first communal movement that was successful

  • made furniture

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Amena Community

  • German immigrants in Iowa trying to realize Christian ideals w/ a socialist society

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  • started in rural NY by Joseph Smith

    • Book of Mormon

    • polygamy, strict social organization, patriarchal, hard work

  • Chased out of NY - went to Nauvoo, Illinois where Smith is killed

  • Brigham Young took over and established a Mormon community in Salt Lake City Utah (in Mexico) - practice polygamy

  • Joseph Smith II (Smith’s son) didn’t support polygamy so made a separate Mormon faction that stays in the US

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Revivalism and Morality

  • influence of divinity of individual in reform movements: transcendentalism, Unitarianism, universalism, and romanticism

  • protestant revivalism + second great awakening evolved into powerful force of social reform

  • a lot of revivlaism in “burned over district” aka upstate new york

  • people searched for stability and discipline

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Charles Grandison Finney

  • most influential revival leader

  • self salvation: each person has capacity for spiritual awakening + salvation

  • popular in upstate NY where life was being upturned by economic changes brought on by the Erie canal

  • Finney mobilized many women (in order to gain access to their husbands)

  • Finney’s revivalism called for crusade against personal immorality

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Temperance Movement

  • strengthened by evangelical protestansim

  • crusade against drunkenness

  • alcohol blamed for crime, husbands mistreatment of wives and children, poverty, and disorder

  • increased supply of alcohol cus of surplus of grain in the west

  • 1826: the american society for the promotion of temperance

  • cultural divide: catholics targeted with alcohol restrictions cus many of their practices relied on it

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Health Fads

  • cholera epidemic + other public health issues caused feeling of insecurity

  • city health boards created but weren’t veru effective

  • affluent people: health spas + changed diets (Sylvester Graham - more fruits and veggies + less meat)

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  • rly unreliable

  • Phrenology

    • idea that shape of skull could predict character and intelligence

  • Oliver Wendell Holmes: realized disease could be transmitted between people

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Reforming Education

  • effort to create a system of universal public education

  • Horace Mann: believed an educated electorate was essential to democracy

  • public education widened throughout the country

    • tax supported elementary schools were accepted and there were elementary schools in every state

  • wide range of quality of education

    • people in west and south less likely than northerners to go to school

  • US had highest literacy rate in the world by the civil war

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Rehabilitation Effort

  • asylums for criminals and mentally ill

  • prison (penitentiaries) and hospital reform

  • Dorothea Dix: leader of movement

  • prisons reform v. punishment: let prisoners reflect, i.e. solitary confinement

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The Indian Reservation

  • ppl wanted to relocate natives to area where they are “protected from whites”

  • thought they would “learn the ways of civilization” in a protected environment

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Emergence of feminism

  • women used power they got from religious authority during 2nd great awakening to play a central role in many reform movements

  • Lucretia Mott, Elizabeht Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony organized the Seneca Falls Convention

  • “Decleration of sentiment” - wanted equality + right to vote for women + end of seperate spheres

  • individual women rose up but little institutional change

    • NY gave women some legal rights + rights to wages and property

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Early opposition to slavery

  • colonization/resettlement of slaves to africa

  • 1817: American colonization society: would give masters compensation for the slaves

  • movement had questionable morals: some people wanted to get rid of free black from north cus of job competition and racism

  • failed because of lack of funding + slaves 3-4 generations removed from Africa didn’t have any ties

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William Lloyd Garrison

  • founded abolitionist newspaper: “the liberator”

  • rejected gradualism/colinzation: wanted immediate abolition

  • supported african americans getting all rights of american citizenship + equality for women

  • believed Constitution was implicit in slavery

  • founded New England Anti-slavery society + American anti-slavery society in philadelphia

    • Philadelphia female anti-slavery society followed

    • AAS funded underground railroad

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Black abolitionists

  • northern abolitionists argued for policies of social uplift + believed free blacks should be educated + be moral so that they could be accepted (moderate view)

  • David Walker - “appeal to the colored citizen” - called for a violent uprising for racial equality

  • Sojourner Truth: powerful spokeswoman for abolition and women’s rights

  • Frederick Douglas: anti-slavery newspaper the “North Star” + wrote an autobiography

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  • abolitionists are still a minority

  • people scared of losing jobs and racial melding

  • increased violence against abolitionists

    • the murder of Elijah Lovejoy

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Abolitionism Divided

  • split between radical abolitonists (i.e. Garrison) and more moderate

  • moderates tried to appeal to morals of slaveholders - failed

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North takes a stand

  • Supreme Court: Prigg v. Pennsylvania ruled that states don’t need to enforce the 1793 law requiring the return of fugitive slaves

  • passage of personal liberty laws in the North: northern states forbade the capture and return of runaway slaves

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The Liberty Party

  • created in 1840

  • “free soil” party - want to keep slavery out of the west/new territories, didn’t advocated for abolition in the south

  • chose James G. Birney as presidential candidate

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Anti-slavery writings/propaganda

  • Harriet Beecher Stowe’s “uncle tom’s cabin”

  • Weld + Angelina and Sarah Grimke’s “testimony of a thousand witnesses” depicted conditions of slavery

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