Unit 7 Vocabulary

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54 Terms

1

Graphology

The writing system of a language, as well as other visual elements on the page.

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2

Grammar

The rules for organizing meaning in a language.

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3

Orthology

The part of language concerned with letters and spelling.

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4

Pragmatics

How the context in which words and phrases are used affect their meaning.

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5

Phonology

The pronunciation and sound patterns which affect understanding of words.

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6

Morphology

The structure of words with their meaning.

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7

Semantics

The meaning of words.

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8

Syntax

The order of words in a sentence.

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9

Early Modern English

English used in the period between approximately 1500 and 1800 marked by a relatively sudden and distinct change in pronunciation and the inclusion of European lexis and the classical lexis of Latin and Greek.

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10

Great Vowel Shift

A series of changes which lasted approximately 200 years from 1350 onwards and the pronunciation of English affecting the vowels.

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11

Late Modern English

The English used in the time period after 1800 until the present day, the change was initiated by scientific and social developments and a desire to establish rules of language.

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12

Colonialism

When a country claims ownership and takes control of another land.

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13

Archaic

Belonging to the past.

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14

Obsolete

No longer in use, often the meaning is no longer understood.

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15

Coinage

The creation of a new word that people start to use.

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16

Neologism

A newly invented word.

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17

Eponyms

A word which takes the name of its inventor or discoverer.

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18

Prefix

A group of letters added at the beginning of the word to make a new word.

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19

Suffix

A group of letters added at the end of the word to make a new word.

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20

Root

The part of a word that cannot be changed.

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21

Stem

A word that can be added to for a change in meaning.

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22

Conversion

Creating a new word or a new word class from an existing class or from a different word class (Ex: green as noun derived from golf from the adjective)

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23

Telescoping

The contraction of a phrase, word, or part of a word on the analogy of a telescope being closed. (Ex: biodegradable = biolgocialy + degradeable)

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24

Compounding

Forming a word from two or more units that are themselves words.(Ex: blackboard = black + board)

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25

Blending

Forming a new word by joining the beginning of one word to the end of another. (Ex: smog = smoke + fog)

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26

Borrowing

The introduction of specific words, constructions, or morphological elements from one language to another. (Ex. “table” into English from old French)

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27

Inflection 

Any form or change of form which distinguishes grammatical forms of the same lexical unit. (Ex. “books” is distuingued from singular “book” by the inflection “s”)

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28

Archaisms

In English Language, words which are no longer in everyday use or have lost a particular meaning in current usage.

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29

Coalescence

When sounds are clipped from endings of words or between two words where the articulation merges or coalesces.

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30

Backformation

A form of clipping where a long word or phrase is shortened and gives a new word in a different form

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31

Reduplication

Processes which replicate the sounds of a word as well as duplicate sounds, often making the resulting words sound lively and informal

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32

Neuter

In language terms, neither male nor female.

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33

Amelioration

The process by which the meaning of a word changes to become more positive.

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34

Pejoration

The reverse process by which the meaning of a word becomes more negative than its meaning in earlier times. 

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35

Broadening 

The process by which a word expands from its original meaning and becomes more general.

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36

Narrowing

The process by which a word takes on a more restricted meaning.

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37

Prescriptivism

The view that language should have a strict set of rules that should be obeyed in speech and writing.

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38

Descriptivism

The view that no use of language is incorrect and that variation should be acknowledged and recorded rather than corrected.

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39

Discourse Genres

Styles of written and spoken communication 

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40

Computer-mediated Discourse

The specialized form of language between online users.

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41

Transmission

The learning and passing on of information between people in a group.

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42

Received Pronunciation

A distinct accent based on the way one is influenced by the speakers around them.

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43

Protolanguage 

A common ancestor of modern languages.

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44

Language Family

A group of languages that are related in structure and have evolved from a common protolanguage.

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45

Pidgin

A simplified mix of languages used to communicate between people who do not share the same language. 

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46

Creole

A natural language spoken by native speakers which has developed from a mixture of languages.

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47

Corpus

A large and structured set of texts usually stored electronically.

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48

Corpus data

The information stored in a corpus comprising written texts and/or transcriptions of spoken language.

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49

Acronym

A word formed from the initial letters of two or more successive words.

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50

Diachrony

The study of the changes in language over time.

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51

Synchronic linguistics

The study of language of a particular time, usually the present.

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52

Word Sketch 

A page summary of word information derived from the corpus.

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53

Concordancer

A software program which analyzes patterns from the corpus.

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54

N-gram

A sequence of items from a sample of text which can be different in length according to the phrase being studied.

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