Unit 3 Gradesavers

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culture

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Tags and Description

67 Terms

1

culture

a groups learned behaviors, actions, beliefs, traditions, and objects

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2

cultural traits

Visible and invisible elements of culture. (Invisible force guiding people through shared beliefs, systems, customs, and traditions.)

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3

cultural complex

A series of interrelated traits (Ex: the process of steps and acceptable behaviors related to greeting a person in different cultures)

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4

cultural hearth

The area in which a unique culture or specific trait develops

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5

Taboos

behaviors heavily discouraged by a culture

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6

folk culture

The beliefs and practices of small, homogenous groups of people, often living in rural areas that are relatively isolated and slow to change

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7

Popular culture

When cultural traits (clothing, music, movies, and types of businesses) spread quickly over a large area and are adopted by various groups

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8

Global culture

When popular culture diffuses quickly worldwide. Global culture is a set of shared experiences, norms, symbols and ideas that unite people at the global level.

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9

Indigenous Community

communities that live within, or are attached to, geographically distinct traditional habitats or ancestral territories, and who identify themselves as being part of a distinct cultural group

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10

Urbanization

The process by which people live and are employed in a city

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11

Globalization

Specifically refers to the increased integration of the world economy since the 1970's. The process of intensified interaction among peoples, governments, and companies of different countries around the globe has had profound impacts on culture.

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12

Material Culture

Anything that can physically be seen on the landscape. Consists of tangible things, or those that can be experienced by the senses (Art, clothing, food, music, etc)

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13

Artifacts

A culture's built environment/an object made by human beings

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14

Mentifacts

comprise a group's nonmaterial culture and consist of intangible concepts, or those not having a physical presence.

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15

Non material culture

Anything on the landscape that comprises culture that cannot be physically touched

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16

Sociofacts

The ways people organize their society and relate to one another

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17

Architecture

the look of building based upon the availability of materials, environment the building is in, and the popular culture

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18

Cultural landscape

the boundaries of a region affect the human imprint on the environment

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19

Traditional Architecture

a style that reflects a local culture's history, beliefs, values, and community adaptations that typically utilize locally available resources

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20

post-modern architecture

a movement away from boxy, mostly concrete or brick structures toward high rise structures made from large amounts of steel and glass sliding

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21

land use patterns

the use of land for various purposes or activities

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22

linguistic characteristics

the features of a language

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23

gender

differences between men and women

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24

religion

a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny

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25

ethnic neighborhood

a voluntary urban community where people of similar origin reside

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26

diaspora

occurs when one group of people is dispersed to various locations

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27

christianity

a monotheistic religion that is based on the life and teachings of Jesus

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28

islam

a monotheistic faith of the muslims that is based on mahammed and the prophet of allah

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29

buddhism

a religion represented by the many groups that profess various forms of the buddhist doctrine

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30

sikhism

a monotheistic religion founded in northern india by guru nanak combining elements of Hinduism and Islam

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31

hinduism

the monotheistic religion of most people in india, bangladesh, sri lanka, and nepal that is based around karma that works closely with a caste system

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32

judaism

a monotheistic faith of jews who practice a religion based on the torah and the talmud

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33

sequent occupancy

successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cultural landscape

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34

cultural relativism

understanding a culture on its own terms rather than judging it by the standards or customs of one's own culture

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35

ethnocentrism

people believe their own cultural group is superior to others

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36

ethnicity

identity with a group of people who share the cultural traditions of a particular homeland or hearth

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37

sense of place

bonds/attachments people develop or experience in particular locations and environments

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38

placemaking

used as an urban planning practice to motivate people to get involved with the spaces closest to them (collaborative)

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39

centripetal force

unify a group of people or region

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40

centrifugal force

divide a group of people or region

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41

relocation diffusion

the spread of culture and/or cultural traits by people who migrate and carry their cultural traits with them

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42

expansion diffusion

the spread of cultural traits outward through exchange without migration

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43

contagious diffusion

when a cultural trait spreads continuously outward from its hearth through contact among people

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44

hierarchical diffusion

spread of culture outward from the most interconnected places or from centers of wealth and influence

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45

reverse hierarchical diffusion

a trait diffuses from a group of lower status to a group of higher status

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46

stimulus diffusion

when an underlying idea from a cultural hearth is adopted by another culture but the adopting group modifies or rejects one trait

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47

creolization

the process in which 2 or more languages converge and form a new language

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48

lingua franca

a common language used by people who do not speak the same native language

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49

colonialism

a particular type of imperialism in which people move and settle on the land of another country

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50

imperialism

includes a variety of ways of influencing another country or group of people by direct conquest, economic control, or cultural dominance

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51

indigenous language

a language that is native to a region and spoken by indigenous peoples

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52

social constructs

are ideas, concepts, or perceptions that have been created and accepted by people in a society or a social group and are not created by nature

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53

time - space convergence

the greater interconnections between places that results from improvements in transportation

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54

cultural convergence

cultures are becoming similar to each other and sharing more cultural traits, ideas, and beliefs

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55

language family

a group of related languages with a common ancestor

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56

dialect

the usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people

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57

isogloss

boundaries between variations in pronunciation or word usage

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58

indo - european language family

a large group of languages that might have descended from a language spoken nearly 6000 years ago

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59

universalizing religion

seeks converts to its faith regardless of their ethnicity, language, social status, or nationality (ethnic background)

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60

ethnic religion

belief traditions that emphasize strong cultural characteristics among their followers

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61

polytheistic

having many gods

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62

monotheistic

having one god

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63

acculturation

the process of a group moving to a new area and adopting the values and practices of the larger group that has received them while still maintaining valuable elements of their own culture

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64

assimilation

when an ethnic group can no longer be distinguished from the receiving group

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65

syncretism

fusion or blending of two distinctive cultural traits into a unique new hybrid trait

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66

multiculturalism

the coexistence of several cultures in one society with the ideal of all cultures being valued and worthy of study

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67

nativism

policy of protecting the interests of native-born

  • attitudes may form among cultural majority, sometimes bringing violence and government actions against the immigrant or minority group

  • anti immigrant attitude

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