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gastrointestinal tract and accessory organs

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gastrointestinal tract and accessory organs

What does the digestive system consist of

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Blastula

Stage of development where digestive system is made

  • many cells fold in on itself

  • fold gets bigger until it goes through it

  • the hole is called an endoderm

  • hole is surrounded by mesoderm

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Protosome

Mouth is made first

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Deuterostomes

Anus is made first

  • humans -Mouth made second

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Peritoneum

Serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity

  • largest serous membrane in body

  • simple squamous

  • contains folds = mesenteries

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Parietal peritoneum

Outer layer lining that touches wall

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visceral peritoneum

Inner lining that covers organs

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Mesentery

a fused double sheets of the peritoneal membrane

  • stabilize position of organs & BV's

  • provide attachment for BV's

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Mesentery proper

binds jejunum and ileum to posterior abdominal wall

  • holds small intestine to body wall

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Mesocolon

binds transverse colon and sigmoid colon to posterior abdominal wall

  • holds large intestine to body cavity

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Greater Omentum

Drapes over transverse colon & small intestine Largest mesentery Fatty apron

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lesser omentum

Connects the stomach and duodenum to the liver

  • contains major blood vessels, bile & lymph structure

  • hepatic portal vein

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intraperitoneal

Digestive organs are completely surrounded by visceral peritoneum

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Retroperitoneal

Organs lie against the posterior abdominal wall

  • kidney

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Mucosa

inner lining of digestive tract

  • epithelium

  • Lamina propria - only place inbody where this CT is found

  • makes mucus

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Submucosa

dense irregular connective tissue Glands that secrete acid, BV & nerve plexus

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Muscularis

smooth muscle that helps more food -Inner circular layer & outer longitudinal layer

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Serosa

visceral peritoneum - layer of serous membrane attached to organ.

  • NOT FOUND IN: oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, OR rectum

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Inner circular

Pushing food along

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outer longitudinal

Smooshing

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processing food Food → macros

What is the primary function of the digestive system

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  1. Ingestion - swallowing food

  2. Digesting-Chem (enzymes cut food smaller) vs mech (teeth )

  3. Absorption - large & small intestine absorbing nutrients

  4. Elimination- waste leaving body

What are the steps of food processing

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oral cavity

mouth Cheeks form the lateral walls

  • lined by stratified squamous epic

  • lips - muscles

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Start of mech & chem digestion bolus forms when we swallow good Bonus = food & saliva

Oral cavity primary function

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soft and hard palate uvula tongue mouth cheeks teeth lips muscles

What does the oral cavity consist of

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Palate

roof of the mouth Hard & soft

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Uvula

CT from soft palate

  • closes off nasopharynx while swallowing

  • gag reflex

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Tongue

Skeletal muscle, held down by the lingual frenulum

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Chewing, gestation, and speech

Tongue primary function

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Teeth

20 deciduous (baby) & 32 adult

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Periodontal ligament

Anchors tooth to the bone

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Incisors - scraping Cuspids (canines)- hold food in place Bicuspids (premolars) - transitional teeth both canines and molars Molars- grinding of food

What are the types of teeth and function

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Amylase

Enzyme in saliva that breaks down starches

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parotid

Biggest gland over the masseter muscle

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Submandibular

salivary gland under mandible

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Sublingual

salivary gland under the tongue

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Deglutition (swallowing)

Passing something from mouth the pharynx & into esophagus Bonus moves through esophagus via peristalsis

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Peristalsis

Rhythmic contract/relax of GI tract muscle

  • moves food

  • smooth muscle

  • happens in esophagus, stomach, large/small intestine -Slowly

  • I secs from esophagus to stomach

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Esophagus

Collapsible, muscular Connects oral cavity to stomach posterior to trachea Start of peristalsis

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gastroesophageal sphincter

Stomach & esophagus sphincter

  • regulate and control the rate of food going into stomach

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gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

long term condition in which stomach acid goes into esophagus ● Acid in the back of the mouth, heartburn, bad breath, chest pain, regurgitation, breathing problems, and wearing away of the teeth ● Risk Factors: obesity, smoking, pregnancy, LES isn't functioning

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stomach

Primary function - chem (cut protein) & mech digest Secondary function- food storage, protein digestion (starts in mouth), hormone production that signals how full we are and for acid to be made Tertiary function Absorption SOME H2O SOME meds ex aspirin Alcohol Caffeine mucosal layer has goblet cells

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Chyme

Food (bolus) mixed with acid

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Oblique

Innermost layer

  • churns food inside stomach

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cardia

Transition from esophagus to stomach

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Fundus

most superior part of the stomach Helps with expansion

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Body

largest region of the stomach Churning happens

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Pylorus

Most inferior region of stomach

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gastroesophageal sphincter

Controls rate of food entering body

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Greater curvature

knowt flashcard image
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rugae of stomach

Expansion

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pyloric sphincter

Between stomach and small intestine

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slow and controlled I tsp at a time Empties in 2-6hrs

How fast does the stomach empty slow an

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Acid + digestive juice, gastric glands

Stomach structures?

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Gastric glands

Inside of mucosa gastric pits Make mucus or acid Secretory cells

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Vomiting

involuntary & forceful expulsion of the contents of the stomach ● Mouth or nose :( burns bc or acid ● Risk factors: Motion sickness, head trauma, food poisoning, overeating, gastritis, drugs, stress ● Treatment: Medication, waiting it out, staying hydrated

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Small intestine

Between stomach & large intestine 18-20 ft

  • 1.5 - 2.5in diameter

  • feeds with villi that contain microvilli

  • nutrients absorbed by touching

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Digestion & absorption of nutrients

Primary function of small intestine

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SI absorption

BVs for sugars & amino acids

  • lacteals for large macros

  • eventually back general circulation

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duodenum, jejunum, ileum

What are the 3 parts of the small intestine

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Duodenum

first 10-13in segment of small intestine ● Chyme from stomach + digestive secretions ● Common bile & pancreatic duct open into duodenum○ Hepatopancreatic ampulla sphincter -breaking down

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Receive chyme from stomach Neutralize acids HCO3 - +H+ → H2O + CO2

Duodenum functions

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jejunum

Middle segment of small intestine Approx. 8ft Chem digestion Nutrient absorption

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Ileum

The final segment of the small intestine Approx. 12ft ileocecal valve cleaning

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Segmentation si digestion

Mixing of food stuffs+ digestive secretions No net movement -Pushes back and forth to mix then pushes → with peristalisis

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Liver

largest organ of the body Located under diaphragm Can regenerate Primary function: detox

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Falciform ligament

Attaches liver to anterior abdominal wall & diaphragm

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hepatic portal system

connects the digestive tract and liver

  • specialized venous blood pathway

  • from GI tract → liver → heart

  • nutrient rich / O2 poor

  • stomach, small intestine, pancreas, and spleen blood get together to form hepatic portal vein to dump blood into liver

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Lobules

functional units of the liver

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hepatocytes

liver cells Break down parasites A lot of rough/smooth ER and ribosomes

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Kupffer cells

Immune system cells

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hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein, small bile duct

What makes up the portal triad

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Hepatic sinusoid

Holds kupffer cells

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Storage of Fe, vit: A, D, E, K, & BI2 Production of glycerol & amino acids→ glucose when hangry Cholesterol Bile - cuts down fat increases sa

Liver secondary function

<p>Liver secondary function</p>
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Gallbladder

Primary function: store bile Located under liver

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gall stones

a stone formed within the gallbladder/bile duct ● Cholesterol / ↓ bile salts = stone ● Crampy pain in the right upper part of the abdomen, fever, yellowish skin, vomiting, or tea-colored urine ● Other acc. organs to become inflamed ● Risk Factors: estrogen + 40 years, weight, and diet hormonal birth control too ● Treatment: Diet change, Surgery or shock waves

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Pancreas

Primary functions endo: make insulin and glucagon exo=pancreatic juices Located behind stomach

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Lipase- lipids /fats Pancreatic amylase-starch Pancreatic trypsin -protein

What are the enzymes for all macros

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Pancreatic juices

Contains sodium bicarb Bicarb protect small intestine from stomach acid b/c no mucus

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Large intestine

Primary function: Last chance absorption & storage Located around the small intestine 4-5 ft long Approx 3in in diameter Absorb H2O and vitamins made by proks (B complex and K) K- help with blood clots I made by our E. coli

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Feces

When it enter iliocecal value it becomes feces for 1st time 3/4 h20 & 1/4 undigested solids+ coliforms bilirubin processing+ oxidized iron = brown poop

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Cecum

transitionary pouch that connects small to large intestine

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Appendix

Lymph tissue

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appendicitis

inflammation of the appendix ●Caused by blockage ● Right/lower abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, & decreased appetite ● Sepsis- infection could happen by fecal matter getting stuck ● Treatment: Removal

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Colon

Largest portion of LI

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Ascend

Fecal matter goes up

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Trans

Fecal matter goes on transverse plane

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Descend

Fecal matter goes down

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Sigmoid

S-shaped Leads feces into rectum

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Haustra

Pouches for expansion - helps with abs and storage

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taeniae coli

longitudinal bands of smooth muscle Helps with peristalsis of each pouch

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Rectum

Last 20 cm of LI Storage area Internal sphincter = involuntary External sphincter = voluntary Both control the rate of fecal exiting body

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Anal canal

Site of defecation Voluntary

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lactose intolerance

  • Only supposed to drink milk as babies inability to digest milk sugars (lactose) ● If no lactase enzyme = can't digest lactose ● Bacteria breakdown lactose anaerobically, producing gas, bloating, diarrhea ● Cheese & yogurt OK, heavy cream & butter too! (more milk fat=less milk sugar) ● Risk Factors: being an adult ● Treatment: Diet & lactase supplement

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Excrete waste from proteins Urea & ammonium from AAs

Urinary system primary function

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Water/salt (blood pressure) homeostasis BP measured in salt

Urinary system secondary function

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Aldosterone

regulates salt and stress homeostasis increases blood vol and blood pressure -stimulated by low sodium concentration (after exercise), blood loss (low blood volume), or low blood pressure kidney reabsorption of Na+ & excretion of K+ NOT controlled by anterior pituitary

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RAAS

renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

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Renin -> RAAS hormone complex

Made from juxtaglomerular apparatus kidneys: constrict bvs = increased blood pressure Tells Adrenal glands to make: Aldo = increased salt retention

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Non urinary function: blood ph

If pH low/acidic = too many H ions & secretion of buffers (bicarb ion) increase If pH high / too alkaline= increase excretions of buffers (bicarb ion) & secretion of H ion increase

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