Art History 1001 Exam #1

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Paleolithic

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68 Terms

1

Paleolithic

The period of the Stone Age associated with the evolution of humans. It predates the Neolithic period.

<p>The period of the Stone Age associated with the evolution of humans. It predates the Neolithic period.</p>
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Neolithic

The period of the Stone Age associated with the ancient Agricultural Revolution. It follows the Paleolithic period.

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3

Megalithic

A large stone used in some prehistoric architecture

<p>A large stone used in some prehistoric architecture</p>
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4

radiocarbon dating

a chemical analysis used to determine the age of organic materials based on the amount of carbon-14 present

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5

adobe

sun-dried mud brick

<p>sun-dried mud brick</p>
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6

register

a horizontal band, often on top of another, that tells a narrative story

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7

votive

an offering in accordance with a vow or prayer

<p>an offering in accordance with a vow or prayer</p>
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8

hierarchy of scale

a system of representation that expresses a person's importance by the size of his or her representation in a work of art

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9

Stele

A carved stone slab used to mark graves or to commemorate historical events.

<p>A carved stone slab used to mark graves or to commemorate historical events.</p>
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10

Ziggurat

massive pyramidal stepped tower made of mudbricks. It is associated with religious complexes in ancient Mesopotamian cities, but its function is unknown.

<p>massive pyramidal stepped tower made of mudbricks. It is associated with religious complexes in ancient Mesopotamian cities, but its function is unknown.</p>
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11

Heiroglyph

the Egyptian way of writing using symbols

<p>the Egyptian way of writing using symbols</p>
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12

Necropolis

A large ancient cemetery

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13

Mastaba

An ancient Egyptian tomb with sloped sides and a flat roof. Has an underground burial chamber with rooms above it filled with offerings.

<p>An ancient Egyptian tomb with sloped sides and a flat roof. Has an underground burial chamber with rooms above it filled with offerings.</p>
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14

Ka

A statue of a human or gods spirit that survived with the soul

<p>A statue of a human or gods spirit that survived with the soul</p>
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Serdab

An ancient Egyptian tomb that served as a chamber for the Ka statues.

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16

Stepped pyramid

a pyramid consisting of several rectangular structures placed on top of one another

<p>a pyramid consisting of several rectangular structures placed on top of one another</p>
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Sarcophagus

a stone coffin, typically adorned with a sculpture or inscription and associated with the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Rome, and Greece.

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18

Obelisk

a stone pillar, typically having a square or rectangular cross section and a pyramidal top, set up as a monument or landmark.

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19

Book of the Dead

Ancient Egyptian funerary text written on papyrus (new kingdom)

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20

material culture

tangible, physical items produced and used by members of a specific culture group and reflective of their traditions, lifestyles, and technologies

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21

Zoomorphic

having or representing animal forms or gods in animal form

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22

Dogu

Small human figurines made in Japan during the Jomon period. Shaped from clay, the figures have exaggerated expressions and are in contorted poses. They were probably used in religious rituals.

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Fang ding

a square or rectangular bronze vessel with four legs; used for ritual offerings in ancient China during the Shang dynasty

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24

Taotie

a mask with a dragon or animal-like face common as a decorative motif in Chinese art

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corbeled roof

a roof made of stone slabs that progressively overlap to create a door opening

<p>a roof made of stone slabs that progressively overlap to create a door opening</p>
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26

Tholos

A temple with a circular plan. Also, the burial chamber of a tholos tomb.

<p>A temple with a circular plan. Also, the burial chamber of a tholos tomb.</p>
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fresco

the technique of painting on dry plaster with pigments mixed in water.

<p>the technique of painting on dry plaster with pigments mixed in water.</p>
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incised

carving or engraving

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relief

a sculptural method in which the sculpted pieces are bonded to a solid background of the same material to make it look raised

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low relief

sculpted relief with figures that project only slightly from the background

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high relief

a sculptural relief in which forms extend out from the background quite a bit

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sanctuary

A place of protection

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peristyle

a colonnade surrounding a building or enclosing a courtyard

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stylobate

a continuous base supporting a row of columns in classical Greek architecture.

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Cella

the main room of a temple where the god is housed

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Enstasis

the slight convex bulge given to a column to offset the optical illusion that it is thinner in the middle

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metope

a square space between triglyphs in a Doric frieze.

<p>a square space between triglyphs in a Doric frieze.</p>
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Capital

top of a column

<p>top of a column</p>
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lost-wax casting

a method of casting metal by a process in which a wax mold covered with clay and fired, leaves a hollow form for metal molds to be made

<p>a method of casting metal by a process in which a wax mold covered with clay and fired, leaves a hollow form for metal molds to be made</p>
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40

Doric

Greek architectural order, simple and masculine. Metopes in frieze. Used on exterior of Parthenon

<p>Greek architectural order, simple and masculine. Metopes in frieze. Used on exterior of Parthenon</p>
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41

Ionic

Greek architectural order, More feminine and delicate. Scrolls on the capitals Used on inner frieze of Parthenon

<p>Greek architectural order, More feminine and delicate. Scrolls on the capitals Used on inner frieze of Parthenon</p>
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42

Corinthian

Greek architectural order. Acanthus leaves on capitals. Used most often by the Romans.

<p>Greek architectural order. Acanthus leaves on capitals. Used most often by the Romans.</p>
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43

Frieze

ornamental band on a wall

<p>ornamental band on a wall</p>
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44

Pediment

the triangular top of a temple that contains sculpture

<p>the triangular top of a temple that contains sculpture</p>
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45

Archaic smile

The smile that appears on all Archaic Greek statues from about 570 to 480 BCE. The smile is the Archaic sculptor's way of indicating that the person portrayed is alive.

<p>The smile that appears on all Archaic Greek statues from about 570 to 480 BCE. The smile is the Archaic sculptor&apos;s way of indicating that the person portrayed is alive.</p>
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46

Karyatid

sculpture of human figure used as architectural support

<p>sculpture of human figure used as architectural support</p>
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47

Krater

An ancient Greek wide-mouthed bowl for mixing wine and water.

<p>An ancient Greek wide-mouthed bowl for mixing wine and water.</p>
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48

Agora

the marketplace in ancient Greece

<p>the marketplace in ancient Greece</p>
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49

Contrapposto

A style of Greek sculpture where people are depicted standing and leaning so that the person's weight is being put on one side. People are depicted with their bodies curved like an "S"

<p>A style of Greek sculpture where people are depicted standing and leaning so that the person&apos;s weight is being put on one side. People are depicted with their bodies curved like an &quot;S&quot;</p>
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50

Canon of Polykleitos

The renowned Greek sculptor Polykleitos designed a sculptural work as a demonstration of his written treatise, entitled the "Kanon" (or Canon, translated as "measure" or "rule"), exemplifying what he considered to be the perfectly harmonious and balanced proportions of the human body in the sculpted form.

<p>The renowned Greek sculptor Polykleitos designed a sculptural work as a demonstration of his written treatise, entitled the &quot;Kanon&quot; (or Canon, translated as &quot;measure&quot; or &quot;rule&quot;), exemplifying what he considered to be the perfectly harmonious and balanced proportions of the human body in the sculpted form.</p>
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51

wet drapery

sculpture carvings that appear to cling to the body as if it was wet.

<p>sculpture carvings that appear to cling to the body as if it was wet.</p>
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52

Gigantomachy

In ancient Greek mythology, the battle between gods and giants.

<p>In ancient Greek mythology, the battle between gods and giants.</p>
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53

Woman of Willendorf

  • Austria, 24,000 BCE

  • Made out of limestone

  • Symbol of fertility

<ul><li><p>Austria, 24,000 BCE</p></li><li><p>Made out of limestone</p></li><li><p>Symbol of fertility</p></li></ul>
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54

Royal Standard of Ur

  • A hollow wooden box with cuneiform writing

  • Iraq, 2500 BCE

  • Sumerian

  • inlaid with a mosaic of shell, red limestone and lapis lazuli

<ul><li><p>A hollow wooden box with cuneiform writing</p></li><li><p>Iraq, 2500 BCE</p></li><li><p>Sumerian</p></li><li><p>inlaid with a mosaic of shell, red limestone and lapis lazuli</p></li></ul>
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55

Palette of Narmer

  • earliest surviving ancient Egyptian artwork

  • shows the unification of Egypt after a great war

  • Egypt, 3000 BCE

<ul><li><p>earliest surviving ancient Egyptian artwork</p></li><li><p>shows the unification of Egypt after a great war</p></li><li><p>Egypt, 3000 BCE</p></li></ul>
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56

Law Stele of Hammurabi

  • Babylon, 1760 BCE

  • Babylonian

  • Where all of the laws were written

<ul><li><p>Babylon, 1760 BCE</p></li><li><p>Babylonian</p></li><li><p>Where all of the laws were written</p></li></ul>
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57

Ishtar Gate

  • The entrance gate into Babylon. It was built by Nebuchadnezzar.

  • Babylon, 600 BCE

  • lions, dragons, bulls

<ul><li><p>The entrance gate into Babylon. It was built by Nebuchadnezzar.</p></li><li><p>Babylon, 600 BCE</p></li><li><p>lions, dragons, bulls</p></li></ul>
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58

Colossal Statue of Akhenaten

  • Thebes, Egypt, 1350 BCE

  • represents the 18th dynasty pharoah

  • androgyny

  • crook and flail

  • resembles Osiris mummy statues

<ul><li><p>Thebes, Egypt, 1350 BCE</p></li><li><p>represents the 18th dynasty pharoah</p></li><li><p>androgyny</p></li><li><p>crook and flail</p></li><li><p>resembles Osiris mummy statues</p></li></ul>
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59

Last Judgment before Osiris, Book of the Dead

  • Egypt, 1275 BCE

  • 19th dynasty new kingdom

  • Drawings and painting on papyrus scroll

<ul><li><p>Egypt, 1275 BCE</p></li><li><p>19th dynasty new kingdom</p></li><li><p>Drawings and painting on papyrus scroll</p></li></ul>
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60

Rack of Bells

  • Marquis Yi, China, 450 BCE

  • In the late Bronze Age

  • rang different notes according to size

  • ritual and sacred music/use

<ul><li><p>Marquis Yi, China, 450 BCE</p></li><li><p>In the late Bronze Age</p></li><li><p>rang different notes according to size</p></li><li><p>ritual and sacred music/use</p></li></ul>
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61

Terra Cotta Army

  • A group over 8000 clay soldiers with weapons, wagons, etc. built on Emperor Qin's order to guard his tomb in the afterlife.

  • China, 210 BCE

<ul><li><p>A group over 8000 clay soldiers with weapons, wagons, etc. built on Emperor Qin&apos;s order to guard his tomb in the afterlife.</p></li><li><p>China, 210 BCE</p></li></ul>
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62

Light Well in the Palace of Knossos

  • Crete, 1600 BCE

  • Minoan, 16th century

  • open shafts that run the full height of a building, designed to bring light and fresh air into the interior of Minoan palaces and other large buildings

<ul><li><p>Crete, 1600 BCE</p></li><li><p>Minoan, 16th century</p></li><li><p>open shafts that run the full height of a building, designed to bring light and fresh air into the interior of Minoan palaces and other large buildings</p></li></ul>
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63

La Venta Throne

  • Olmec, 800 BCE -high relief figure seated in a niche -motifs -likely to have expressed the idea of a cave to the underworld

<ul><li><p>Olmec, 800 BCE -high relief figure seated in a niche -motifs -likely to have expressed the idea of a cave to the underworld</p></li></ul>
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64

Iktinos and Kallikrates

  • Architects of the Parthenon

  • Parthenon, Athens, 440 BCE

  • Athens, Greece

<ul><li><p>Architects of the Parthenon</p></li><li><p>Parthenon, Athens, 440 BCE</p></li><li><p>Athens, Greece</p></li></ul>
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65

Polykleitos, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer)

  • 450 BCE

  • Classical period

  • Artist/Architect: Polykleitos

  • Pompeii, Italy

  • depicts human movement; Imposes Polykleitan style: to perfect human movement, harmonic proportions, cross balance

  • idealistic, detailed, perfect

<ul><li><p>450 BCE</p></li><li><p>Classical period</p></li><li><p>Artist/Architect: Polykleitos</p></li><li><p>Pompeii, Italy</p></li><li><p>depicts human movement; Imposes Polykleitan style: to perfect human movement, harmonic proportions, cross balance</p></li><li><p>idealistic, detailed, perfect</p></li></ul>
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66

Winged Victory (Nike)

  • Samothrace, Greece, 200 BCE

  • Hellenistic period, baroque art

  • sculpted by Pythokritos of Rhodes

<ul><li><p>Samothrace, Greece, 200 BCE</p></li><li><p>Hellenistic period, baroque art</p></li><li><p>sculpted by Pythokritos of Rhodes</p></li></ul>
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67

Kouros

Greek word for "male youth." An Archaic Greek statue of a standing, nude youth.

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68

Kore

an archaic Greek statue of a young woman, standing and clothed in long loose robes.

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