Micro Exam 4 SG- Ch. 22-26

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Epidermis

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120 Terms

1

Epidermis

thin outer portion of skin

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2

What is the epidermis made of?

layers of epithelial cells

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3

Keratin

waterproofing protein coating outer layer of epidermis

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4

Dermis

thick inner portion of skin

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5

What is the dermis composed of?

primarily connective tissue

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6

What do lysozymes do?

break down bacterial cell walls

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7

The skin contains sebum secreted by oil glands containing

fatty acids that inhibit pathogens

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8

Vesicles

small, fluid filled lesions

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9

bullae

vesicles larger than 1cm in diameter

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10

macules

flat, reddened lesions

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11

pustules

raised lesions with pus

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12

impetigo

Staphylococcal skin infection crusting (nonbullous) sores spread by autoinoculation

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13

scalded skin syndrome

Staphylococcal skin infection. bulbous impetigo toxin B causes exfoliation

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14

pemphigus neonatorum

impetigo of the newborn

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15

toxic shock syndrome (TSS)

Staphylococcal skin infection Fever, vomiting, shock, and organ failure caused by toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) in the bloodstream

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16

Acne

most common skin disease in humans

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17

inflammatory (moderate) acne

caused by propionibacterium acnes

  • metabolizes sebum; fatty acids produce an inflammatory response treated with antibiotics and benzoyl peroxide

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18

nodular cystic (severe) acne

inflamed lesions with pus deep in the skin

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19

otitis externa

Infection by pseudomonas "Swimmers ear" Opportunistic in burn patients Resistant to many antibiotics

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20

necrotizing fasciitis

Streptococcal skin infection "Flesh- eating" strep disease Exotoxin A produced by S. pyogenes acts as a superantigen

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21

measles (rubeola)

Viral disease transmitted by the respiratory route Cold like symptoms, macular rash Koplik's spots Encephalitis in 1 in 1000 cases Prevented by MMR vaccine

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22

koplik's spots

red spots on the oral mucosa opposite the molars

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23

Shingles (herpes zoster)

Reactivation of the latent varicella- zoster virus that moves along peripheral nerves to the skin. - due to stress or lowered immunity Follows the distribution of affected cutaneous sensory nerves. - limited to one side of the body Postherpetic neuralgia- very painful Prevention via the zoster vaccine Antiviral drugs may lessen symptoms.

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24

Chickenpox (Varicella)

DNA virus, Herpes family Herpesvirus varicella- zoster (human herpesvirus 3) Transmitted via the respiratory route Causes pus-filled vesicles Virus becomes latent in the central nerve ganglia Reye's syndrome Prevented by a live attenuated vaccines -breakthrough varicella can occur if previously vaccinated

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25

Reye's syndrome

Severe complications of chickenpox; vomiting and brain dysfunction -aspirin use increases risk

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26

Warts

Papillomas Transmitted via contact Caused by papillomavirus -more than 50 types -some cause skin and cervical cancers Treated with cryotherapy, electrodesiccation, or salicylic acid Papilloma vaccine can prevent certain cervical cancers

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27

papillomas

small skin growths

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28

Rubeola

measles

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29

varicella zoster

virus that causes chickenpox

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30

Rubella

German measles Macular rash and light fever Transmitted via the respiratory route; 2-3 week incubation Prevented by MMR vaccines

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31

Papillomavirus

Causes warts

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32

Herpes simplex virus I and II (HSV I, HSV II)

DNA viruses, herpes family Usually develop as cold sores or fever blisters

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33

HSV I

spread primarily by oral or respiratory routes

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34

HSV II

spread primarily sexually

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35

Conjuctivitis

Inflammation of the eye membrane (conjunctiva) Also called red eye or pinkeye Caused by bacteria or virus Commonly caused by Haemophilus influenzae Can be caused by pseudomonas associated with unsanitary contact lenses

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36

CNS

Central nervous system Composed of the brain and spinal cord

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37

Blood- brain barrier (BBB)

Formed by epithelial cells of the capillary wall, astrocyte end- feet ensheathing the capillary, and pericytes embedded in the capillary basement membrane. Shields the brain from toxins in the blood.

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38

Encephalitis

Inflammation of the brain

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39

Meningitis

Inflammation of the meninges.

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40

Tetanus

Caused by Clostridium tetani Gram(+), endospore forming, obligate anaerobe Grows in deep wounds Tetanospasmin released from dead cell blocs relaxation pathway in muscles Prevented by vaccination with tetanus toxoid (DTP) and booster (dT)

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41

Poliomyelitis

Poliovirus Transmitted by ingestions Initial symptoms: sore throat and nausea Viremia may occur; if persistent, virus can enter the CNS Destruction of motor cells and paralysis occurs in <1% of cases Prevention: vaccination (enhanced- inactivated polio vaccine)

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42

Rabies

Caused by rabies virus Transmitted by animal bite

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43

Furious rabies

Animals are restless then highly excitable

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44

Paralytic rabies

Animals seem unaware of surroundings

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45

Haemophilus influenzae Meningitis

Occurs mostly in children (6 months- 4 years) Gram(-) aerobic bacteria, normal throat microbiota Capsule antigen type B Prevented by Hib vaccine

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46

Neisseria meningitidis

Also called meningococcal meningitis Caused by N. mengitidis: Gram (-), aerobic cocci with a capsule 10% of people are healthy nasopharyngeal carriers Begins as throat infection, rash

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47

Streptococcus pneumoniae Meningitis

Also called pneumococcal meningitis Caused by S. pneumoniae (a gram+ diplococcus) 70% of people are healthy nasopharyngeal carriers Most common in children (1 month- 4 years) Mortality: 30% in children, 80% in elderly Prevented by vaccination

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48

Listeria monocytogenes

Gram (+) bacillus pathogen causing listeriosis

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49

Clostridium tetani

Gram (+) pathogen causing tetanus

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50

Poliovirus

Causes poliomyelitis

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51

Rabies virus

Causes rabies

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52

Listeriosis

Caused by Listeria monocytogenes Gram(-) aerobic rod Usually foodborne; can be transmitted to fetus Reproduce in phagocytes

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53

Cardiovascular & Lymphatic systems

Plasma leaves blood to become interstitial fluid Lymph capillaries: transport interstitial fluid to blood Lymph nodes contain: fixed macrophages, B cells, T cells

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54

What do lymph nodes contain?

Fixed macrophages, B cells, T cells

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55

What is the function of the lymphatic system?

Maintains fluid levels in body tissues by removing all fluids that leak out of blood vessels.

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56

Septicemia

Persistent pathogens or their toxins in blood

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57

Sepsis

Systemic inflammatory response

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58

Septic shock

Sepsis + uncontrollable decreased blood pressure

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59

Endocarditis

Inflammation of the endocardium

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60

Anthrax

Bacillus anthracis: Gram(+), endospore- forming, aerobic rod Found in soil Cattle routinely vaccinated Treated with ciprofloxacin or doxycycline

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61

Infectious mononucleosis

Epstein- Barr virus (HHV-4) Childhood infections are asymptomatic Transmitted via saliva Characterized by proliferation of monocytes

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62

Cutaneous anthrax

Endospores enter through minor cut 20% mortality

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63

Gastrointestinal anthrax

Ingestion of undercooked, contaminated food 50% mortality

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64

Inhalational (pulmonary) anthrax

Inhalation of endospores 100% mortality

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65

Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus pyogenes Enterococcus faecium Streptococcus agalactiae/ Group B Streptococcus

Gram (+) pathogens associated with nosocomial infections

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66

Bacillus anthracis

Gram (+), endospore- forming, aerobic rod Pathogen causing anthrax

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67

Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

HHV- 5 Infected cells swell Latent in white blood cells May be asymptomatic or mild Transmitted across placenta; may cause mental retardation Transmitted sexually, by blood, or by translated tissue

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68

Epiglottitis

Most life threatening disease of the upper respiratory system

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69

Scarlett fever

Erythrogenic toxin produced by lysogenized S. pyogenes

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70

Diphtheria

Caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae Forms a tough grayish membrane in the throat -Fibrin and dead tissue -Blocks passage of air to the lungs Exotoxin produced by lysogenized bacteria: circulates in the blood; damages the heart and kidneys

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71

Otitis media

Infection of the middle ear: formation of pus puts pressure on the eardrum Causes: Streptococcus pneumoniae, nonencapsulated Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, S. pyogenes, respiratory syncytial viruses Common in childhood due to smaller auditory tube Treated with broad-spectrum penicillins

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72

Viral pneumonia

Occurs as a complication of influenza, measles, or chickenpox

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73

Q fever

Caused by Coxiella burnetti

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74

Pertussis (whooping cough)

Caused by Bordetella pertussis Produces a capsule: allows attachment to ciliated cells in the trachea: destroys ciliated cells and shuts down the ciliary escalator. Tracheal cytotoxin of cell wall damages ciliated cells. Pertussis toxin enters the bloodstream.

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75

Tuberculosis

Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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76

Acute Q fever

High fever, muscle aches, headache, coughing

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77

Chronic Q fever

Endocarditis (may occur years after infection)

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78

Pathogens that cause otitis media

Streptococcus pneumoniae Nonencapsulated Haemophilus influenzae Moraxella catarrhalis S. pyogenes respiratory syncytial viruses

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79

Mycoplasma pneumonia

Pathogen causing Mycoplasmal pneumonia No cell wall Gram (-)

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80

Coxiella burnetiid

Pathogen causing Q fever. Obligately parasitic, intracellular gammaproteobacteria. Gram (-)

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81

Bordetella pertussis

Gram (-) coccobacillus pathogen causing pertussis (whooping cough)

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82

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Pathogen causing Diphtheria Gram (+) rod; pleomorphic

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83

Legionella pneumonia

Pathogen causing Legionellosis Aerobic, gram (-) rod Grows in water and air conditioning, biofilms, and waterborne amebae

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84

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Gram (+) Pathogen causing Tuberculosis Acid- fast rod; obligate aerobe 20- hour generation time Lipids in the cell wall make it resistant to drying and antimicrobials.

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85

Influenza virus

Contains 8 RNA segments and an outer lipid bilayer

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86

Adenovirus

Causes mild cold or flu- like illness.

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87

Rhinovirus

30%-50% of common cold Thrives in temperatures lower than body temperature.

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88

Coronavirus

10%-15% of common cold

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89

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

Most common viral respiratory disease in infants and life-threatening pneumonia in older adults. -almost all children are infected by age 2 -14,000 deaths annually, mostly in older adults Causes cell fusion (syncytium) in cell culture Coughing and wheezing for more than a week Diagnosis: serological test for viruses and antibodies Treated with palivizumab

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90

Cholera

Acute diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with Vibrio cholerae bacteria.

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91

Salmonella gastroenteritis

Caused by salmonella enterica Invades intestinal muscosa and multiples -passes through M cells and enters the lymphatics -replicates in macrophagesIncubation of 12-36 hours; fever, nausea, pain and cramps, diarrhea

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92

Traveler's diarrhea

Most commonly caused by enterotoxigenic E. coli

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93

Aflatoxin poisoning

Mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus -likely to be found on peanuts -causes liver cirrhosis and liver cancer

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Ergot poisoning

Mycotoxins produced by Claviceps purpurea -occurs in grains -restricts blood flow (gangrene) and causes hallucinations

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95

Giardiasis

Caused by Giardia intestinalis Prolonged diarrhea, malaise, weight loss, flatulence, cramps. Hydrogen sulfide detected in the breath or stools. Diagnosed with microscopic examination of stool samples; CDC currently recommends serological fecal tests. Treated with metronidazole and nitazoxanide.

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96

Amebic dysentary

Caused by Entamoeba histolytica

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97

Vibrio cholera

Gram (-) pathogen causing cholera

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98

Escherichia coli

Gram (-). E. coli.

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99

Campylobacter jejuni

Gram (-) micro aerobic Causes campylobacteriosis

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100

Helicobacter pylori

Gram (-) pathogen causing Helicobacter peptic ulcer disease. Infects 30–50% of the population in the developed world - grows in the stomach acid by producing urease: converts urea to alkaline ammonia - disrupts stomach mucosa, causing inflammation

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