Psychology 100 Exam 1 Study Guide

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Perspective which focuses on how bodily events affect behavior, feelings, and thoughts.

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Perspective which focuses on how bodily events affect behavior, feelings, and thoughts.

Biological Perspective

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2

Perspective which focuses on how our mental processes work, such as how we reason, remember, understand language, and problem solve.

Cognitive Perspective

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3

Perspective which focuses on how the environment and our experiences affect a person or animal's actions.

Learning Perspective

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4

Perspective which focuses on the impact of other people and cultural roles on behavior, attitude, and beliefs.

Sociocultural Perspective

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Perspective which focuses on how the unconscious can influence us.

Psychodynamic Perspective

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6

Field of professional activity in which psychologists typically hold a doctorate and work at universities and colleges and instruct courses and conduct studies on behavioral and mental processes. (Professors)

Teaching and Conducting Research

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Field of professional activity in which psychologists typically hold a masters or doctorate and work in the private sector to improve the physical and mental health of individuals. (Private practice, hospitals, schools, etc.)

Psychological Practice

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Field of professional activity in which psychologists hold various degrees and work in Industry, Law, and other community settings. (Sports, advertising, animal behavior, etc.)

Private Sector Research or Consultation

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The study of natural relationships between variables (associations).

Correlational Research

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Examining if a change in one variable causes, or leads to, a change in a second variable, all while controlling for other variables.

Experimental Research

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Maximum and minimum value correlation can have (max#, min#)

1, -1

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The relationship between two variables in which one variable increases as the other variable decreases.

Negative coorelation

<p>Negative coorelation</p>
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If both the independent variable and the dependent variable change in the same directions

Positive correlation

<p>Positive correlation</p>
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Determined by the difference in data points

Strength of Correlation

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Determined by the direction of the line on the graph, or by the increase or decrease of both variables

Type of Correlation

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A third variable that is related to both variables, and as a result, makes it appear that both variables are related when in truth they are not (reason why casual statements can't be fully based off correlation).

Covariate

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Using a random method to select participants for your study, typically from the entire population (Sample system used to generalize a population)

Random Sampling

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The process of placing participants into groups using a random method (Sample system used to equalize two groups)

Random Assignment

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19

What is being manipulated by the researcher; has different levels

Independent Variable

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What is being measured by the researcher; the behavior or response

Dependent Variable

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Any variable that inadvertently influences the data; time, gender, age, etc.

Extraneous Variable

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Group(s) of participants who receive a particular treatment

Experimental group

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Group(s) of participants who do not receive the treatment, or who receive the current standard of care

Control group

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The study of behavior and mental processes

Psychology

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An agreed upon statement of what we observe (People can conserve water)

Fact

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An idea that explains or predicts a fact (Limiting showers to 5 minutes helps to conserve water)

Theory

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A testable statement describing a relationship that may occur between events (people who limit showers to 5 minutes have a lower water bill than those who shower for more than 5 minutes)

Hypothesis

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Freud's term for the psychic energy that drives all behavior and motivates us to strive for self-preservation and survival

The Libido

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Seeks immediate satisfaction, particularly sexual and aggressive instincts; contains the libido ("it")

The Id

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Mediator; represents reason and guides the Id ("I")

The Ego

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The conscience; represents morality ("Above I")

The Superego

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The extent to which someone is curious and imaginative, or conformal and predictable (versus resistance to new experiences)

Openness to Experience

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The extent to which someone is responsible, steadfast, and self-disciplined, or undependable, fickle, and impulsive (versus impulsiveness)

Conscientiousness

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The extent to which people are outgoing, or shy (versus introversion)

Extroversion

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The extent to which someone is good natured, cooperative, and secure, or irritable, abrasive and jealous (versus antagonism)

Agreeableness

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The extent to which someone experiences anxiety, negative emotions, and resentment (versus emotionally stable)

Neuroticism

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Gender identity is due to natural selection, the brain, and other physiological differences

Biological perspective

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Gender develops based on the identification with a same sex parent or care taker

Psychoanalytic Perspective

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Gender roles are learned through observations of others

Social Learning Perspective

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Gender is based on mental "rules" for how men and women are supposed to act

Cognitive Perspective

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Location where the predominant belief is that parents play a large role in the development of a child's personality (this is not supported by any of the research findings)

The Western World

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Has little influence on personality; siblings often have very different personalities

"Shared" Environments

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Will often change due to many factors, such as mood

Child Rearing

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The influence of parents on personality is best captured when we look at both how the parents raised the child, and how the child responds to the parents

A Dynamic Relationship

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A distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual

Personality

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A characteristic of an individual describing a habitual way of behaving, thinking, or feeling.

Personality Trait

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Theories that explain behavior and personality in terms of the movement unconscious, phycological energy within a person

Psychodynamic Theories

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Measures and defines personality in terms of specific traits (more modern approach)

Core Trait Theories

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Blocking from memory

Repression

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Repressed and then attributed to someone else

Projection

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Directing uncomfortable or conflicted emotions toward someone or something else

Displacement

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Reverting to a previous stage of development

Regression

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A refusal to admit that something unpleasant is happening

Denial

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Methods used by the ego to prevent anxiety or threatening thoughts from entering the conscious

Defense Mechanisms

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Values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by most of a particular community; highly elated to personality

Culture

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The self is regarded as autonomous, and individual needs and goals are generally placed ahead of the group's

Individualistic Cultures

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The self is regarded as part of the group, and group needs and goals are generally placed ahead of an individual's needs and goals

Collectivist Cultures

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58

Most commonly can cause deafness

Rubella (German measles)

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Can cause fetal deformities and cognitive abnormalities

Radiation (Including x-rays)

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Increases chance of miscarriages, premature birth, and low birthweight

Cigarette smoking

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Associated with low birthweight, smaller brain size, facial deformities, and mental impairments

Alcohol consumption

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Can cause mental impairments or blindness; HIV may be passed from mother to baby

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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Can cause various associated outcomes during child development

Numerous Legal and illegal drugs

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A universal capacity of all primates and is essential to good health and survival

Attachment

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The innate pleasure derived from close physical contact

Contact comfort

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Once attached to a caretaker, most infants display distress when their primary caregivers leave them with strangers (typically begins around 6 to 8 months)

Separation anxiety

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Experiment devised by researcher Mary Ainsworth to study attachment

Strange Situation

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Baby cried or protested when mother left and were happy to play with mother again when she returned

Secure Attachment

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Baby treated the stranger the same as the mother and did not seem to care if the mother was there or not

Insecure Avoidant Attachment

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Baby protested loudly when the mother left, but when she returns baby resisted contact with her

Insecure Anxious-Ambivalent

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Abandonment or deprivation in the first 1 to 2 years of life

Promotes insecure attachment

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Abusive or neglectful parenting, or erratic parenting due to chronic irresponsibility or clinical depression

Promotes insecure attachment

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The child's own genetically influenced temperament, especially when combined with nonresponsive parenting

Promotes insecure attachment

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Stressful circumstances within the family

Promotes insecure attachment

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The understanding that something exists even when you can't see it

Object Permanence

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The understanding that the properties of objects can remain the same even when their form or appearance changes

Conservation

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77

Focuses on the progression of changing patterns of thought and action interactions (comparing objects and ideas) (Piaget's stages)

Cognitive Development

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Each stage of development is defined by the focus of the libido at that time (Freud's stages)

Psychosexual Development

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Focuses on a series of conflicts that people face throughout the lifespan (Erickson's stages)

Psychosocial Development

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80

Infants use their senses and motor actions to explore the world; begin to use symbolic thought through images or words (Piaget: Cognitive Development)

Sensorimotor Stage

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Preschoolers use symbolic thought to develop language, engage in pretend play, and solve problems; thinking is egocentric and not yet logical (Piaget: Cognitive Development)

Preoperational Stage

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School-aged children acquire logical operations allowing them to mentally classify concrete objects ("real world"); problem solve using trial-and-error approach (Piaget: Cognitive Development)

Concrete Operations Stage

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Adolescents can think about abstract concepts and hypothetical possibilities; can track long-term consequences of behavior (Piaget: Cognitive Development)

Formal Operations Stage

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Libido is focused on mouth as source of pleasure; breast feeding (Freud: Psychosexual Development)

Oral Stage (Stage: 1)

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Libido is focused on the anus; toilet training (Freud: Psychosexual Development)

Anal Stage (Stage: 2)

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Libido is focused on genitals; notices genital differences between mom and dad (Freud: Psychosexual Development)

Phallic Stage (Stage: 3)

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Libido is inactive; child focuses on school work and same sex friendships

Latency Period (Stage: 4)

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Libido is focused on sexual relationships and reproduction; puberty, parenting (Freud: Psychosexual Development)

Genital Stage (Stage: 5)

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Infants need to learn how to trust their caregiver(s) to meet their needs; if not, child will have difficulty with trust in relationships in future relationships (Erikson: Psychosocial Development)

Trust vs. Mistrust

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Children must learn how to assert their wills and do things for themselves; if not, children doubt their abilities (Erikson: Psychosocial Development)

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

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Preschoolers must develop and carry out bold plans, but also learn to respect the rights of others (Erikson: Psychosocial Development)

Initiative vs. Guilt

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Children must develop social and academic skills and keep up with their peers; if not, children will feel inferior (Erikson: Psychosocial Development)

Competence vs. Inferiority

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Adolescents must establish social and vocational goals; if not, adolescents will be confused about their roles as adults (Erikson: Psychosocial Development)

Identity vs. Role confusion

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Young adults must seek to form a shared identity with another person; if not, they will fear intimacy and experience loneliness (Erikson: Psychosocial Development)

Intimacy vs. Isolation

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Middle-aged adults must feel they are producing something; if not, they may become stagnant and self-centered (Erikson: Psychosocial Development)

Generativity vs. Stagnation

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Older adults must feel their lives as meaningful; if not, they will fear death with worries and regret (Erikson: Psychosocial Development)

Integrity vs. Despair

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97

All humans are believed to be born with the _____________________________

Innate capacity for language

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