Unit 1 APHG

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Location

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50 Terms

1

Location

the position of something on the earth's surface

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2

absolute location

exact location of a place on meridians and parallels

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3

relative location

spots described in relation to other physical or human characteristics

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4

space

the physical gap or distance between two objects

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5

map scale

the relationship between the size of an object or distance between objects on a map and the size of the actual object or distance on the earth's surface

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6

place

a specific point on earth with human and physical characteristics that distinguish it from other points

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7

pattern

the arrangement of objects on earth's surface in relationship to one another

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8

regionalization

the organization of earth's surface into distinct areas that share common traits and are viewed as different from other areas

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9

globalization

the process of the expansion of political and cultural activities to the point that they reach and have impact on many areas of the world driven by economics

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10

landscapes

the overall appearance of an area that is shaped by both human and natural influences

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11

cartography

the art and science of map-making

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12

accessibility

the opportunity for contact or interaction from a given point or location, in relation to other locations (how easy/hard is it to physically get from one place to another?)

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13

Activity Space

The space within which daily activitiy occurs. Ex: work, home, etc.

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14

Connectivity

The degree of direct linkage between one particular location and other locations in a transport network; (ability to connect to others via phone, email, internet)

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15

Contagious Diffusion

A form of expansion diffusion in which nearly all adjacent individuals and places are affected.

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16

Culture

Learned and shared behaviour by a group of people and includes both material and non-material components

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17

Culture Trait

A single, distinguishing feature of regular occurrence within a culture, such as the use of chopsticks or the observance of a particular caste system. A single element of learned behavior.

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18

Cultural Barrier

Prevailing cultural attitude rendering certain innovations, ideas or practices unacceptable or unadoptable in that particular culture.

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19

Cultural Diffusion

The expansion and adoption of a cultural element, from its place of origin to a wider area

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20

Cultural Hearth

A region of the Earth in which civilizations and culture begin without the influence of outside cultures. Known hearths include: Mesopotamia (Iraq), Indus Valley (Pakistan), Nile River Valley (Egypt), Yellow River Valley (China) and the Yucatán Peninsula (Maya)

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21

Cultural Landscape

A combination of cultural features such as language and religion, economic features such as agriculture and industry, and physical features such as climate and vegetation. (defined by Carl Sauer as an area fashioned from nature by a cultural group) [Cultural Attributes]

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22

Distortion

a change in the shape, size, or position of a place when it is shown on a map

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23

Environmental Determinism

A doctrine that claims that cultural traits are formed and controlled by environmental conditions.

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24

Expansion DIffusion

The spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area in such a way that the number of those influenced grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination. Three types: contagious, hierarchical, stimulus

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25

Formal Region

(or uniform or homogeneous region) an area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics(like language ,religion, climate etc.) Examples are States like Montana, corn belt. One of 3 types of regions.

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26

Functional Region (Nodal)

Area organized around a node or focal point. The characteristic chosen to define a functional region dominates at a central focus or node and diminishes in importance outward. This region is tied to the central point by transportation or communication systems or by economic or functional associations.

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27

Hierarchical Diffusion

A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places or people. Follows a power structure. Example: cell phones, fashion

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28

Independent Innovation

development of the same culture trait or pattern in separate cultures as a result of comparable needs and circumstances

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29

Longitude

lines running N/S that MEASURE E/W, also called meridians

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30

Latitude

lines running E/W that MEASURE N/S also called parallels

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31

Mental Map

An internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located.

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32

Mercator Projection

A map projection that fairly accurately shows shape and direction, but distorts distance and size of land masses. Good for maritime mapping

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33

movement

This theme of geography answers the question: "How do people, goods, and ideas move from one location to another?"

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34

Perceptual Region (Vernacular)

how people think about or percieve a region (ex. "the middle east")

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35

Periphery

A boundary line; perimeter; an outside surface

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36

Peters Projection

focuses on keeping landmasses equal in area. As a result, the shapes are distorted, and the map looks unfamiliar to viewers

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37

Possibilism

The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives. Example: golf course in a desert because of irrigation

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38

Relocation Diffusion

The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another. Example: Christianity and/or English spread through missionaries

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39

Robinson Projection

Projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. It does not maintain completely accurate area, shape, distance, or direction, but it minimizes errors in each.

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40

Sense of Place

Feelings evoked by people as a result of certain experiences and memories associated with a particular place

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41

Sequent Occupance

The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape

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42

Site

The site is the actual location of a settlement on the earth and is composed of the physical characteristics of the landscape specific to the area

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43

Situation

Situation is defined as the location of a place relative to its surroundings and other places. Factors included in an area's situation include the accessibility of the location, the extent of a place's connections with another, and how close an area may be to raw materials if they are not located specifically on the site

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44

Space Time Compression

the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems

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45

Distance Decay

The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.

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46

Spatial Interaction

the movement of people, goods and ideas within and across geographic space

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47

Spatial Perspective

An intellectual framework that looks at the locations of specific phenomena, how and why that phenomena is , and, finally, how it is spatially related to phenomena in other place

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48

Stimulus Diffusion

The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected. Example: McDonalds to India but changing the hamburger to a vegie burger

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49

Azimuthal Projection

It has the useful properties that all points on the map are at proportionately correct distances from the center point, and that all points on the map are at the correct azimuth (direction) from the center point.

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50

cartogram

a map on which statistical information is shown in diagrammatic form

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