FEDERAL GOV'T: CH. 10-12

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Health

12th

50 Terms

1

apportionment

the process by which seats in the House of Representatives are distributed among the fifty states

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2

association

groups of companies or institutions that organize around a common set of concerns, often within a given industry or trade

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3

astroturf movement

a political movement that resembles a grassroots movement but is often supported or facilitated by wealthy interests and/or elites

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4

bicameralism

the political process that results from dividing a legislature into two separate assemblies

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5

bully pulpit

Theodore Roosevelt’s notion of the presidency as a platform from which the president could push an agenda

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6

cabinet

a group of advisors to the president, consisting of the most senior appointed officers of the executive branch who head the fifteen executive departments

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7

citizens united

Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission was a 2010 Supreme Court case that granted corporations and unions the right to spend unlimited amounts of money on elections

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8

cloture

a parliamentary process to end a debate in the Senate, as a measure against the filibuster; invoked when three-fifths of senators vote for the motion

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9

collective good

a good such as public safety or clean air, often produced by government, that is generally available to the population as a whole

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10

conference committee

a special type of joint committee that reconciles different bills passed in the House and Senate so a single bill results

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11

constituency

the body of voters, or constituents, represented by a particular politician

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12

delegate model of representation

a model of representation in which representatives feel compelled to act on the specific stated wishes of their constituents

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13

efficacy

the belief that you make a difference and that government cares about you and your views

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14

enumerated powers

the powers given explicitly to the federal government by the Constitution to regulate interstate and foreign commerce, raise and support armies, declare war, coin money, and conduct foreign affairs

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15

executive agreement

an international agreement between the president and another country made by the executive branch and without formal consent by the Senate

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16

executive order

a rule or order issued by the president without the cooperation of Congress and having the force of law

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17

executive privilege

the president’s right to withhold information from Congress, the judiciary, or the public

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18

filibuster

a parliamentary maneuver used in the Senate to extend debate on a piece of legislation as long as possible, typically with the intended purpose of obstructing or killing it

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19

free rider problem

the situation that occurs when some individuals receive benefits (get a free ride) without helping to bear the cost

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20

grassroots movement

a political movement that often begins from the bottom up, inspired by average citizens concerned about a given issue

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21

impeachment

the act of charging a government official with serious wrongdoing, which in some cases may lead to the removal of that official from office

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22

implied powers

the powers not specifically detailed in the U.S. Constitution but inferred as necessary to achieve the objectives of the national government

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23

inherent powers

the powers neither enumerated nor implied but assumed to exist as a direct result of the country’s existence

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24

inside lobbying

the act of contacting and taking the organization’s message directly to lawmakers in an attempt to influence policy

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25

iron triangle

three-way relationship among congressional committees, interests groups, and the bureaucracy

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26

issue network

a group of interest groups and people who work together to support a particular issue or policy

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27

joint committee

a legislative committee consisting of members from both chambers that investigates certain topics but lacks bill referral authority

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28

legislative liaison

a person employed by a governmental entity such as a local government, executive department, or university to represent the organization before the legislature

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29

line-item veto

a power created through law in 1996 and overturned by the Supreme Court in 1998 that allowed the president to veto specific aspects of bills passed by Congress while signing into law what remained

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30

lobbyist

a person who represents an organization before government in an attempt to influence policy

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31

majority leader

the leader of the majority party in either the House or Senate; in the House, the majority leader serves under the Speaker of the House, in the Senate, the majority leader is the functional leader and chief spokesperson for the majority party

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32

markup

the amending and voting process in a congressional committee

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33

material incentive

substantive monetary or physical benefits given to group members to help overcome collective action problems

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34

minority leader

the party member who directs the activities of the minority party on the floor of either the House or the Senate

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35

Office of Management and Budget

an office within the Executive Office of the President charged with producing the president’s budget, overseeing its implementation, and overseeing the executive bureaucracy

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36

outside lobbying

the act of lobbying indirectly by taking the organization’s message to the public, often through the use of the media and/or by issue press releases, in hopes that the public will then put pressure on lawmakers

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37

oversight

the right to review and monitor other bodies such as the executive branch

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38

pluralist

a person who believes many groups healthily compete for access to decision-makers

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39

pork-barrel politics

federal spending intended to benefit a particular district or set of constituents

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40

president pro tempore

the senator who acts in the absence of the actual president of the Senate, who is also the vice president of the United States; the president pro tempore is usually the most senior senator of the majority party

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41

purposive incentive

benefits to overcome collective action problems that appeal to people’s support of the issue or cause

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42

revolving door laws

laws that require a cooling-off period before government officials can register to lobby after leaving office

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43

select committee

a small legislative committee created to fulfill a specific purpose and then disbanded; also called an ad hoc, or special, committee

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44

signing statement

a statement a president issues with the intent to influence the way a specific bill the president signs should be enforced

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45

soft money

money that interests can spend on behalf of candidates without being restricted by federal law

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46

Speaker of the House

the presiding officer of the House of Representatives and the leader of the majority party; the Speaker is second in the presidential line of succession, after the vice president

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47

standing committee

a permanent legislative committee that meets regularly

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48

surge-and-decline theory

a theory proposing that the surge of stimulation occurring during presidential elections subsides during midterm elections, accounting for the differences we observe in turnouts and results

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49

trustee model of representation

a model of representation in which representatives feel at liberty to act in the way they believe is best for their constituents

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50

whip

in the House and in the Senate, a high leadership position whose primary duty is to enforce voting discipline in the chambers and conferences

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