APHG Ch 11 Vocab: Agriculture

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organic agriculture

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37 Terms

1

organic agriculture

approach to farming and ranching that avoids the use of herbicides, pesticides, growth hormones and other synthetic inputs

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2

agriculture

purposeful tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber

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3

econmic activity

five types of economic activity that contribute to an overall economy:

  1. primary

  2. secondary

  3. tertiary

  4. quaternary

  5. quinary

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4

primary

economic activity concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment; ex mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture

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5

secondary

processing raw materials and their transformatoin into finished industrial products (manufacturing sector)

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6

tertiary

provision of services; transportation, banking, retailing, education and routine office based jobs

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7

quaternary

collection processing and manipulation of information and capital; finance, admin, insurance and legal services

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8

quinary

service sector industries that require high level of specialized knowledge or skill; typically only found in core countries

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9

plant domestication

genetic modification of plants such that its reproductive success depends on humans; made to be more useful through breeding

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10

root crops

crop that is reproduced by cultivating the roots of or the cuttings from the plants

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11

seed crops

crop that is reproduced through culitivating seeds of plants

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12

First Agricltural Revolution

dating back 10000 years achieved plant and animal domestication

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13

animal domestication

genetic modification of animals so that they are more beneficial to humans

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14

subsistence agriculture

self-sufficient agriculture that is small scale and low technology, emphasizes food production for local consumption NOT trade

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15

shifting cultivation

cultivatioon of crops in tropical forest clearings in which forest vegetation has been removed by cuttting and burning; usually abandoned after a few years in favor of newly cleared forestland

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16

Second Agricultural Revolution

witness improved methods of cultivation, harvesting and storage of farm produce; occured alongside Industrial ev

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<p>von Thunen Model</p>

von Thunen Model

model that explains the location of agricultural activities in a commericial, profit making economy; process of spatial competition allocates various farming activities into rings around a central market city, with profit earning capability the determining force in how far a corp locates from the market

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18

Third Agricultural Revolution

currently in progress, development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

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biotechnology

technology designed to manipulate seed varieties to increase crop yields

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20

Green Revolution

successful development of higher yielding fast growing varieties of rice and other cereals in certaind evloping countries, lead to increased product per unit area and a dramatic narrowing of the gap between population growth and food needs

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genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

crops that carry new traits that have been inserted through advanced genetic engineering methods

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22

rectangular survey system

also called Public Land Survey; system used by US land Office Survey to parcel land west of the Appalachin Moutains; system divides land into a series of rectangular parcels

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23

township and range system

a rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the US interior

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24

metes and bounds system

system of land surveying east of the Appalachian Moutains; relies on descriptions of land ownership and natural features such as streams or trees; because of inprecise nature of metes and bounds abandoned the technique in favor of the rectangular survey system

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25

long lot survey system

distinct regional approach to land surveying found in the Canadian Maritimes parts of Quebec, Louisiana and Texas whereby land is divided into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers roads or canals

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primogeniture

system where the eldest son in a family or sometimes daughter inherits all the dying parent’s land

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27

commerical agriculture

term used to describe large scale farming and ranching operations that emply vast land bases, alarge mechanized equipment, factory type labor forces and the lastest technology

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monoculture

dependence on a single agricultural commodity

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29

Koppen Climate Classification System

system for classifying world’s climates on the basis of temperature and precipitation

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climate regions

areas of the world with similar climatic characteristics

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31

plantation agriculture

production system based on a large estate owned by an individual family or corporation organized to produce cash crops; almost all plantations established in tropics

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livestock ranching

raising of domesticated animals for the production of meat and other byproducts

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33

Mediterranean agriculture

specialized farming that occurs only in areas where dry summer Mediterranean climate prevails

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34

cash crops

crops made explicitly for mass production and trade (tobacco, corn, cotton)

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35

luxury crops

non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee and tobacco

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36

agribusiness

general term for the businesses that provide the vast array of goods and services that support the agriculture industry

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37

food desert

an area characterized by a lack of affordable, fresh and nutritious food

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