Psych 101 Exam 2 Review

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The perception associated with the amplitude of a sound wave is?

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The perception associated with the amplitude of a sound wave is?

loudness

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The term absolute threshold refers to the _ intensity of a stimulus that must be present for stimulus to be detected.

smallest

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The vestibular system is primarily responsible for:

processing location and motion; problems would make it difficult to balance.

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The _ threshold refers to the smallest amount of stimulation required to discriminate one stimulus from another.

difference

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Rods are related to vision in _ situations.

dimly lit

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Which of the following is the best synonym for sensation?

reception

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Much of the visual-recognition areas of the brain are located along the ventral pathway also known as?

the "What" pathway

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The blind spot is the place on the retina where _?

the optic nerve leaves the eye toward the brain

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The smallest intensity at which you are able to detect a stimulus refers to the?

absolute threshold

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The _ is important in that it functions to collect and amplify sound.

outer ear

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The ability to view the world in three dimensions and to perceive distance - a skill known as depth perception - is largely a result of?

binocular disparity

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Sensation begins when

energy stimulates a receptor cell in a sense organ

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"We all see things - but we _ differently".

percieve

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Transduction

the conversion of physical energy into neural signals

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Perception

the brain's interpretation of sensory information, giving it meaning; knowing what you saw

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Sensory thresholds

the limits of our ability to sense stimuli in the environment

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Absolute threshold

the smallest amount of stimulation that can be detected 50% of the time

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We have one _ for each sense.

absolute threshold

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Signal detection

method for studying the ability to correctly identify sensory stimuli.

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Difference threshold (just noticeable difference)

out ability to detect the smallest change in stimulation

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The ability to see a candle flame from 30 miles away and can distinguish represents what Law?

Weber's Law

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Weber's Law

the Just Noticeable Difference (JND) is a proportion of the original stimulus

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What are the two approaches to perceiving the world?

Bottom-up processing and Top-down processing

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Bottom-up processing

recognizing and processing information from individual components to build a perception of the whole stimuli

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Ex. Person is trying to learn a new language and has to think of the meaning of the word to process and make sentences. This represents what type of processing?

Bottom-up processing

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Top-down processing

perception that is guided by higher-level knowledge, experiences, expectations, and motivations.

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Ex. A native English speaking individual doesn't need to thing about the meaning of words. This represents what type of processing?

Top-down processing

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Sensory adaptation

decrease in sensitivity to a stimulus after constant stimulation

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Over time becoming accustomed to fan sound in room is an example of?

Sensory adaptation

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After being told what inaudible sound says, you are able to now identify it because of _?

our expectations of reality

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Ex. When being told to count how many basketball passes are made throughout the video, you completely ignore the moonwalking bear that passes by. This is because of what?

Inattentional blindness

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Binocular disparity

allows for slightly different views from each eye

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Ex. Viewing our finger with one eye changes our perspective. This is an example of _?

binocular disparity

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Inattentional blindness states that things that we don't see, don't _.

exist

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Binocular vision

provides 3D and depth cues based on different views from two eyes

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Types of photoreceptors?

rods and cones

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We have two eyes so that we can use _.

depth perception

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Function of photoreceptors?

transduce light into electrical signals

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Rods are sensitive to _ but not to _?

light/color

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Cones are _-sensitive and respond to _?

light/color

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Depth perception allows us to?

perceive distance and view the world in 3D

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Location of photoreceptors?

retina

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Order of visual pathway through brain? (4)

optic nerve to optic chasm to thalamus to primary visual cortex

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Cones function in what type of lighting?

light areas

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Carries electrical signals to brain

Optic nerve

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Signals are transported to the _ and _ lobes for further processing in the _ association cortex.

temporal/parietal/visual

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Rods function in what type of lighting?

low light or dark areas

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Extrastriate body area

understands and recognizes different body parts

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Agnosia

inability to perceive stimuli

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Prosopagnosia

inability to recognize faces

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Occurs when you go from a dark movie theatre to the afternoon sun?

Light adaptation

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Known as the "Where" pathway?

Dorsal pathway

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Prosopagnosia occurs because of failure of the _?

Fusiform face area

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Perception takes place where?

visual association cortex

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_ are activated when dark adaption occurs

rods

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Occurs when you go from the afternoon sun into a dark movie theatre?

Dark adaptation

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Fusiform face area

interprets and recognizes faces

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_ are activated when light adaption occurs

cones

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Trichromatic theory of color vision states that we have?

three different color-sensitive cells

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What are the S-cones of the Trichromatic theory?

blue-violet colors

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What are the M-cones of the Trichromatic theory?

green colors

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What are the two major theories of color vision?

Trichromatic theory and Opponent-process theory

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What are the L-cones of the Trichromatic theory?

red-yellow colors

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Trichromatic theory: We can see so many colors because of the _ of stimuli.

combination

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Opponent-process theory of color vision

two pairs of basic colors work in opposition to each other

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Opponent-process theory colors

blue-yellow/red-green/black-white

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Colors of the Opponent-process theory can't _.

can't exist together

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Which theory of color vision best explain after images?

Opponent-process theory

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Why are some people colorblind?

damaged cones

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The perceptual attributes of sound (3)

loudness/pitch/timbre

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Loudness (amplitude) refers to the _ sensation.

pressure

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Pitch refers to?

frequency of sound waves

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Timbre refers to?

distinction

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Sound

movement of air molecules brought about by a source of vibration

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Outer ear

detects direction of sound

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Pinna

Outermost portion of the ear

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Auditory canal

Tube running from the outer ear to the middle ear

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Cornea

transparent layer in front of the eye

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Pupil

Opening in the middle of the iris

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Retina

Cell layer in the back of the eye containing photoreceptors

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Photo activation

when light is converted to electrical impulses for transmission to the brain

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Tympanic membrane (eardrum) is where what occurs?

sound vibration

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Ossicles (middle ear)

three bones in the ear where vibration is transported to the cochlea

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Inner ear (cochlea) is the location of

receptor cells

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