Environmental Ethics- BIOL305 Midterm

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principle of humanity

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65 Terms

1

principle of humanity

treat persons as ends, not means

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2

Val Plumwood

ecofeminism- part of larger self

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3

Karen Warren

ecofeminism- reject subjugation and control dynamics of binaries

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4

metaphysics

rational discourse about things that exist

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5

ethics

application in habits and practices/virtues

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6

epistemology

what does it mean to know

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7

prescriptive claims

claim based on what one "ought" to know

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8

empirical claims

descriptive, explanatory, predictive

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9

philosophy

love of wisdom

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10

PLATO

Phaedo- leave behind bodily vices and physical sensation

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11

Hofeldian Incidents

describe a bundle of rights

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12

primary rights

privilege and claim

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13

secondary rights

power and immunity

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14

negative right

non-interference

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15

positive right

to a good or service

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16

LOCKE

"first occupancy" and labor matters

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17

instrumental value

value because it's a mean

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18

intrinsic value

value because deemed valuable because of what it is

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19

problem of incommensurability

history of science reveals proponents of competing paradigms failing to make complete contact with each other's views

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20

PINCHOT conservation

anthropocentric; development, prevention of waste, developed and preserved for the good of many

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21

MUIR preservation

preserve the way things are

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22

utilitarianism

maximize good; minimize harm

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23

greatest happiness principle

maximize pleasure; minimize pain

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24

equal value thesis

all species equally valuable

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25

unequal value thesis

all species are valuable, but not all equally

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26

Cornwall Declaration

environmental concerns matter if they align with the economy and technology can help us achieve them

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27

Evangelical Declaration on the Care of Creation

focus on conserving the Earth because it was created by God

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28

KANT

animals are means, not ends; indirect duties; hurting animal is wrong because of what it says about moral character of cruel person

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29

categorical imperative

seeing humanity in others creations obligation to those who share in humanity

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30

Christine Korsgaard

animal suffering is the key thing that makes our treatment to animals matter

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31

Cruthers

no moral obligation to animals b/c they have no moral standing

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32

Taylor's biocentric egalitarianism

attempt to deprioritize any species over others

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33

Leopold's Land Ethic

not concerned about economics and move away from those justifications- life should be protected for itself

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34

deep ecology

the viewing of humanity as part of the organic whole; we wrongly elevate ourselves over other beings

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35

theocentrism

all things made by God, for God; whether in terms of use or relationship

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36

POPE FRANCIS Laudatory Si

understanding creation as made for communion (interdependence) and relationship

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37

Ecofeminism

applying historically feminist reasoning to environmentalism

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38

3 binaries

human v nature, male v female, reason v emotion

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39

great chain of being

European idea that every species was a link on chain extending from lowest form to humans to spiritual beings

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40

HIPPO

habitat destruction, invasive species, pollution, human overpopulation, overharvesting

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41

most important cycle

water cycle

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42

normativity

concept that tells us why we ought to do something

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43

Euthryphro dilemma

Does God say what is already good or does He make things good?

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44

Principle of Noninterference

since something is natural, we should not interfere

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45

innovation presumption

any innovation is permissible unless it shows harm to environment

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46

3 doctrines of creation

  1. Ex nihilo 2) Creator/creature distinction 3) Divine Aseity

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47

Divine Aseity

God is free to create and free from creation; goodness of creation not a function of usefulness

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48

anthropocentrism

criterion for inherent worth- being a human

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49

Actual preference anthropocentrism

treating environment according to human interests and preferences

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50

technological optimism

develop tech to make our preferences possible

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51

enlightened anthropocentrism

knowledge helps us to find ideal human preferences

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52

Callicott's Pluralism

variety of moral views, not just one governing principle; defends Leopold's land ethic

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53

ecofacism

subjugation of species in a totalitarian way of ruling over everything

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54

unknown needs problem

future humans might need something so we should not deplete something

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55

ecology

study of interactions between living things and environment

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56

environmental science

studying God's creation and interactions; interdisciplinary

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57

environmentalism

working to influence the attitudes and policies that affect our environment

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58

deductive

general principles to particular inferences

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59

inductive

from particular observations to general principles

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60

abductive

inference to particular explanation

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61

sustainability

allows resources to be used indefinitely

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62

stewardship

involves actions and programs that manage resources and human well-being for common good

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63

resource partitioning

over time, niches can evolve as species develop new strategies to exploit resources

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64

bioaccumulation

uptake into tissues

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65

biological magnification

concentration of toxin up food chain increases

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