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1

Collision Theory

reactant particles must collide with the

**correct orientation**reactant particles must collide with sufficient E(a)

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2

Activation Energy

Minimum amount of energy that colliding particles must require for a reaction to occur.

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3

E(a)

energy between reactants - energy in transition state

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4

Transition state

highest energy state on a reaction coordinate, point at which new bonds are being formed and old bonds are being broken

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5

Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution

In an ideal gas, the kinetic energy of the molecules is spread over a range of values

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6

Total area under the Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution =

Total number of particles in the sample

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7

MBDC - When temperature increases

Curve flattens out

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8

MBDC - When temperature decreases

curve is taller and leaner

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9

MBDC - When lower molar mass

Higher speed, curve flattens

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10

MBDC - When heavier molar mass

slower, taller & leaner

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11

MBDC - Activation Energy

The lower the activation energy the more particles are eligible to take part in the reaction, shaded region larger

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12

Find Activation Energy: Formula

lnK = (-E(a)/R) x (1/t) x lnA *divide by 1000 as R is in J

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13

Comparing 2 conditions

ln(k1/k2) = -Ea/R (1/T2 - 1/T1)

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14

ROR

Change in concentration or pressure of a reactant or products per unit of time.

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15

Calculate average rate of reaction for a gaseous rxn carried out in a 2.5 dm^3 vessel if 0.04 mol of product was produced in 20 seconds.

c = n/v = 0.04/2.5 = 0.016

ROR = Δc/Δt = 0.016/20 seconds

average ROR = 8 x 10^-4

**mol/dm^3/s**

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16

ROR =

Δc/Δt

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17

How to calculate Instantaneous rate

Draw a tangent to the curve at a particular time

divide Δy/Δx to find gradient

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18

Metal + Acid

Salt + H2

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19

Metal Hydroxide + acid

Salt + water

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20

Metal carbonate + acid

salt + CO2 + H2O

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21

Metal Oxide + acid

Salt + water

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22

FAROR: Concentration

as concentration increases

number of collisions increase

between reactant particles

leading to greater successful collisions

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23

FAROR: Temperature

as temperature increases

particles gain kinetic energy

leading to frequent collisions

leading to greater successful collisions

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24

FAROR: Surface Area

as surface area increases

more reactant particles are exposed to other reactant particles

leading to greater successful collisions

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25

FAROR: Pressure

As pressure in a system increases

distance between reactant particles decreases

leading to more frequent collisions

leading to greater successful collisions

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26

FAROR: Catalyst

substance that

**alters ROR**by

**lowering its activation energy**through an

**alternate path**without

**getting used up**during the reaction

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27

Transition Metals as catalysts

surface of transition metals are slightly positive due to transition metals

lone pairs in reactant particles are attracted to slightly positive charge.

temporary polar bonds formed till other reactant particles collide with it.

lowering activation energy

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28

First Order Reaction, units

s^-1

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29

Second order Reaction units

mol^-1dm^3s^-1

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30

Third order Reaction units

mol^-2dm^6s^-1

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31

Arhennius Factor ‘A’ =

frequency of collisions & probability that collisions are in the correct orientation.

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32

Find Ea graphically

Graph of lnK vs 1/T where m = -Ea/R

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33

Plausible Reaction mechanisms

Elementary steps must add up to give the overall balanced equation

Reaction mechanisms must be consistent with experimental data

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34

Reactants - concentration/pressure vs time

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35

Products - concentration/pressure vs time

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36

Surface area = powder vs granules on product conc.

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