Biology Midterm Flashcards

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Abiotic

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171 Terms
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Abiotic

Non-Living

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Biotic

A living thing

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A

Not

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Bio

Life

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In order to be alive you must...

Grow, adapt, develop, use energy (metabolism), reproduce, have cells, react, and maintain homeostasis

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Homeostasis

“Staying the same”- maintaining a constant environment in your body

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Food Chain

Show the flow of energy in the ecosystem. Every food chain MUST start with a producer

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Producer

An organism that makes its own food like a plant

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What is another name for a producer?

Autotroph

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Consumer

An organism that has to eat

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What is another name for consumer?

Heterotroph

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What are the different types of consumers?

Primary and Secondary Herbivore, Omnivore, and Carnivore

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Herbivore

Eats only plants

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Omnivore

Eats plants and animals

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Carnivore

Eats only animals

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Primary Consumer

1st thing that eats (herbivore)

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Secondary Consumer

2nd thing that eats (omnivore or carnivore)

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Scavenger

Eats animals that something else has killed

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Decomposer

Breaks down dead material

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What percent of energy passes from one organism to another?

10%

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Niche

The job or role an organism has in its ecosystem or how it makes a living

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Habitat

Where an organism lives

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Who is responsible for almost all modern day environmental issues?

Humans

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Habitat Destruction

Destroying the home of an organism. This could happen because of deforestation

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Biodiversity

Having many types of living things. This is a good thing and

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How are humans causing the loss of biodiversity?

Killing orgnaisms

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What's another word for Bioaccumilation?

Biomagnification

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What is bioaccumilation?

When poisons build up in the food chain. The higher up you go in the food chain the more poison there is

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What decreases the higher up you go on the energy pyramid?

Energy and biomass

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pH scale

Determines if something is a Base or an Acid

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What pH do cells and organisms like to be at?

Neutral

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What pH does acid rain have?

Any pH less than 7

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Ozone Layer

A layer of gases which filters out the harmful UV radiation from the sun

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What would happen to humans without the ozone layer?

Humans would be exposed to radiation and have more cases of skin cancer

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What is another word for an invasive species?

Nonnative

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Invasive Species

These are organisms which are from another country

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How do invasive species take over their new environment?

pushing out other native species

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What is another word for stewardship?

Sustainable Practices

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Stewardship

When humans work to protect their environment

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What are life's levels of organization?

Cell, Tissue, Organs, Organ Systems, Organism, Population, Community, and Ecosystem

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Cell

Smallest unit of life

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Tissue

A bunch of cells

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Organs

A bunch of tissues

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Organ Systems

A bunch of organs

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Organism

A bunch of organ systems

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Population

A bunch of the same organisms

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Community

A bunch of different populations

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Ecosystem

A community with abiotic factors

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Symbiosis

A close relationship between organisms

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What are the 3 main types of symbiotic relationships?

Mutualism, Commensalism, and Parasitism

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Mutualism

Both organisms benefit

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Commensalism

One organism benefits and the other doesn’t care

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Parasitism

One organism benefits while the other one is harmed

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What are two other symbiotic relationships

Predator/Prey and Competition

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Carbon Cycle

Carbon is an element that is in all living things on earth. It cycles the earth mainly in the form of Carbon Dioxide and Glucose

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What are the 3 ways Carbon Dioxide gets into the atmosphere?

Respiration, burning fossil fuels, and open burning

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What is the main way Carbon is removed from the atmosphere?

Photosynthesis

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How are humans releasing excess fossil fuels into the atmosphere?

Burning fossil fuels

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Greenhouse Effect

Too much carbon dioxide causing the Sun’s radiation to be trapped on the earth which is causing the earth’s temperature to rise

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What is another word for the Greenhouse Effect?

Global Warming

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What does Global Warming cause?

Glaciers melting and ocean levels rising

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Population Growth

Populations will grow unchecked until they are limited by limiting factors

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Limiting Factors

Resources like water, space, food, etc. That a population can run out of

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What are the 3 population curves?

Carrying Capacity, J-Curve, and S-Curve

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Carrying Capacity

The number of organisms an ecosystem can support

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J-Curve

This population grows extremely fast (exponential growth). The population uses up all the resources and will crash and all die out

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S-Curve

This population grows until it reaches it carrying capacity. Then it will stabilize over the carrying capacity

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What makes the Predator and prey population growth are opposite of each other?

Carrying Capacity

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When the predator is up

The prey is down

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When the prey is up

The predator is down

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Birthrate

The number of people born each year

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Birthrate=Deathrate

No population growth

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Birthrate>Deathrate

Population will grow

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Birthrate<Deathrate

Population will decrease

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Age Structure Graphs

Shows how the population of a country is distributed

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What are the 2 main age structure graphs?

Rapid and Stable growth

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Rapid Growth

Has lots of kids and not very many old people

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Stable Growth

Not many children and lots of older people

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Which age structure gap is poor?

Rapid

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Which age structure gap is rich?

Stable

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Macromolecule

A large molecule

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Organic Molecules MUST have what?

Carbon

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What are the 4 main macromolecules?

Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, an Nucleic Acids

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Carbohydrates

Sugars

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What are the building blocks of Carbohydrates?

Monosaccharides

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What are Carbohydrates used for?

Quick energy

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What are carbohydrates made of?

Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen (1:2:1)

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What are the 3 types of Carbohydrate?

Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, and Polysaccharides

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How many sugars do Monosaccharides have?

1

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How many sugars do Disaccharides have?

2

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How many sugars do Polysaccharides have?

A lot

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What are Lipids used for?

Long term energy storage and for the cell membrane

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Lipids

Fats, waxes and oils

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What are lipids made of?

Long chains of carbon and hydrogen and a little bit of oxygen

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Triglyceride

A fat made of a glycerol backbone and three fatty acid chains

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Proteins

Restore tissues

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Where are proteins made?

Ribosomes

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What are proteins made of?

Amino Acids held together by peptide bonds

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Hemoglobin

A protein in a blood cell that helps carry oxygen in the blood

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Insulin

A protein in the body which helps maintain proper blood sugar levels. If there are problems making insulin than a person could have diabetes

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