A Level Biology - Chapter 2 A

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eukaryote

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Tags and Description

47 Terms

1

eukaryote

complex, multicellular, membrane bound organelles, 0.1mm animal, plant, agal, fungal

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2

cell surface / plasma membrane

membrane found on surface of animal cells and inside the cell wall of other cells; regulates movement of substances in and out of cell

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3

cytoplasm

fluid inside cell which metabolic reactions occur in

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4

nucleus

large, nuclear envelope double membrane, pores, nucleolus, chromatin; contains genetic material and controls cell’s activity, pores allow RNA to move into cytoplasm

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5

nucleolus

produces ribosomes

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6

mitochondria

double membrane, inner membrane folded into cristae, matrix, respiratory enzymes; site of aerobic respiration

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7

Golgi apparatus

a group of fluid filled membrane bound flattened sacs; processes and packages new proteins and lipids and produces lysosomes

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8

Golgi vesicle

a small fluid filled membrane bound sac produced by the Golgi apparatus; stores processed lipids and proteins and transports them out of the cell

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9

lysosome

round membrane bound organelle; contain digestive enzymes called lysozymes which digest invading cells or dead/broken components

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10

ribosome

very small, attached to RER, 80s, made of proteins and RNA not surrounded by membrane; site of protein synthesis

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11

rough endoplasmic reticulum - RER

large fluid filled membrane bound flattened sacs with ribosomes on surface; folds and processes proteins made at ribosomes, site of protein synthesis

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12

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

large fluid filled membrane bound flattened sacs; synthesises and processes lipids

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13

cell wall

rigid structure that surrounds plant cells, plant and algae cellulose, fungi chitin; supports cell structure and prevents cell changing shape

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14

chloroplast

plant cells only, double membrane, matrix, starch granules, thylakoids stacked, grana linked by lamellae; site of photosynthesis

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15

vacuole

membrane bound sac containing sap, tonoplast membrane; storage, maintains internal cell pressure to stay rigid and prevent wilting

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16

epithelial cells

villi and microvilli increase surface area for absorption, lots of mitochondria for cotransport

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17

red blood cells

no nucleus, biconcave, increase amount of oxygen that can be carried

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18

sperm cells

lots of mitochondria for energy for movement towards egg

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19

tissue

group of cells working together to perform a particular function

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20

organ

different tissues working together

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21

organ system

different organs working together

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22

prokaryote

simple single celled organism, no membrane bound organelles, less than 2 micrometers

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23

prok membranes

cell surface membrane and cell wall, cell wall made of murein glycoprotein

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24

slime capsule

protect bacterium from attack by immune system cells

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25

prok ribosomes

70s smaller than euk; site of protein synthesis

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26

flagellum

long hairlike structure, rotates; moves bacteria

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27

prok genetic material

free in cytoplasm, circular, not associated with histones, plasmids passed between prokaryotes

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28

virus

acellular, capsid protein coat, attachment proteins, genetic core, replicate using host cell mechanisms

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29

binary fission

DNA and plasmids replicate

cell expands DNA moves to opposite poles

cytoplasm divides new cell wall formed

two daughter cells, random assortment of plasmids

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30

viral replication

virus attaches to receptor proteins, complimentary

genetic material released into host cell

gm replicated by host cell machinery

viral components assemble

new viruses released from host cell

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31

magnification

how much bigger the image is compared to the specimen

magnification = size of image / size of real object

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32

resolution

how well the microscope distinguishes between two close points

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33

optical microscope

uses light, max magnification x1500, max resolution 0.2 micrometers

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34

electron microscope

uses electrons, more detailed, max magnification x1500000, max resolution 0.0002 micrometers

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35

transmission electron microscope TEM

electromagnets focus beam of electrons transmitted through specimen, denser absorb more electrons darker image, see internal structures, vacuum, thin, dead specimen

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36

scanning electron microscope SEM

scan a beam of electrons across specimen, knocks off electrons from specimen collected to form image, 3D image, surface only, thick specimen, lower resolution

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37

artefact

object visible down microscope that isn’t part of the specimen

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38

cell fractionation

homogenisation break up membranes release organelles,

filtration through gauze remove large debris,

ultracentrifugation spin in centrifuge increasing speed, largest organelles separate first

drain supernatant and remove pellet

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39

cell fractionation properties

ice cold reduce enzyme (lysozyme) activity, isotonic prevent cell lysis, pH buffer maintain pH prevent denaturing

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40

mitosis

cell division of somatic cells, 2 genetically identical daughter cells

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41

interphase

G1 growing, S DNA replication, G2 growing, normal cell function throughout

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42

prophase

chromosomes condense, nuclear membrane break down, centrioles move to opposite poles

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43

metaphase

chromosomes line up along equator, spindle fibres attach to centromere

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44

anaphase

spindle fibres contract separating sister chromatids, pulled to opposite poles of the cell

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45

telophase

chromatids uncoil, nuclear envelope reform around each pole

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46

cytokinesis

cytoplasm divides producing two separate genetically identical daughter cells

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47

mitotic index

mitotic index = number of cells with visible chromosomes / total number of cells visible

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