Religion Test

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How did John Wycliff and Jan Hus anticipate Protestantism?

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Test Date: 01.31.2023

40 Terms


How did John Wycliff and Jan Hus anticipate Protestantism?

They believed that the Church should only be concerned with the Scriptures and Christian teachings. They wanted to distance the people from needing the Pope or bishops. Much like Protestants today, they believe that the Bible is final authority.

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Orthodox Church


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Leader of the Roman Catholic Church in the West


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Leader of the Eastern Orthodox Church in Constantinople

The Patriarch

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When did The Great Eastern Schism occur?


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Which two people excommunicated each other from their churches?

Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagorus I

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What did the Byzantine Church think about the Pope’s authority?

They believed that his authority over the whole Church took control away from the Patriarch of Constantinople.

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Where was the Roman Catholic Church


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Causes of the Great Schism


-Church Authority


-The Icon Controversy

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West: Latin | East: Greek

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Church Authority

East: Bible was final authority | West: Pope’s interpretation

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East: allows | West: banned

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Priests Right to Marry

East: could marry | West: could not

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The Icon Controversy

Emperor Leo III (the Isaurian) banned use of icons

Called it idol worship

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those who opposed the use of icons and saw the practice as idolatry

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those who supported the use of icons and did not see it as idolatry

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The Avignon Papacy

When the Pope abandoned Rome and resided in France

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Black Death

-Killed 1/3 of the European population

-Occurred in 1347

-Resulted in a lot of clergy members death & that caused non qualified clergymen to take the spot

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What else caused the Great Schism?

Pope Leo III’s crowning of Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor of the West looked like an act of offense to the emperor of the East

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Even though Sicily is in West Italy, they were considered Eastern Orthodox until The Normans (West) captured Italy and all the Patriarch (East) could not regain control. Thus making Sicily now part of the Western church

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Western Church (Roman Catholic)


-Pope has authority over bishops

-Farther from seat of power when Constantinople became the capital

-Spoke Latin

-Pope had authority over Kings & emperors

-Priests can’t marry

-Divorce is not allowed

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Eastern Church (Eastern Orthodox)


-Patriarch & bishops share authority

-Close to seat of power after Constantinople became the capital

-Spoke Greek

-Emperor ruled over Patriarch & Bishops

-Priests CAN marry

-Divorce is allowed sometimes

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What two trade routes allowed for increased contact?

Baltic Sea & Black Sea

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What did Thomas a Kempis write?

The Invitation of Christ

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First Crusade

-Launched by Pope Urban II because he turned to native France people to recruit soldiers

-Crusaders killed Jews & Muslims

-Byzantine Empire gained territory from Turks

-SUCCESSFUL bc they gained the Holy Land

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Godfrey of Bouillon

-Leader of the First Crusade

-Elected head of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem

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Second Crusade

-Launched after Muslims regain territory that were captured by Christians in the First Crusade


-Christians lost Jerusalem again and everything else gained in the First Crusade

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Third Crusade

-Launched by the King of England, France, and Germany


-Could not gain Jerusalem back but gained the right to let Christians visit the city

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Fourth Crusade

-Launched in 1204 because of concerns about Muslim influence in the Holy Land (Jerusalem)

-The Crusaders seeked financial support from the former Byzantine emperor

-They tore through the walls of Constantinople & destroyed the city

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St. Catherine of Siena

Mystic that convinced Pope Gregory XI to return to Rome

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The Great WESTERN Schism

-The Romans wanted an Italian pope so Pope Urban VI was elected in 1378.

-He wanted to reform the church and bring the papal seat back to Rome after the Avignon papacy

- Urban was verbally abusive & threathening so there wasn’t much change

-As a result, they elected Pope Clement VII, who was related to King Charles V and would reside in Avignon -now there are two popes

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Hundred Years War

-Started 41 years before the Great Western Schism and ended 36 years after

-Caused by the throne dispute between Edward III & Philip VI

-Edward had the birthright to the French throne but his title was given to a distant French relative (Philip)

-This started the War bc England & France had been enemies for a while

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England’s Victories in the Hundred Years War

-Won battles at Crecy, Poitiers, and Agincourt

-Formed an alliance with the Burgundians

-Led by Edward III and his son

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France’s Victories in the Hundred Years War

-France wins the war in 1453

-Joan of Arc

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Joan of Arc

-Commands a French army with high spirits

-Believes she was chosen by God

-Dressed like a man

-Burned at the stake bc they thought she was a witch

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Evangelization of Eastern Europe & Russia

-Expanded through the Black & Baltic Sea

-St. Methodius & St. Cyril were the most successful missionaries

-Princess Olga visits Constantinople and converts it to Christianity

-Her grandson Vladmir observed religions and decided Eastern Orthodoxy was the best for Kiev

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Mongols in Russia

The Mongols invaded Kiev and destroyed it.

They proceeded to rule all of Southern Russia but were eventually overthrown

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Influence of the Byzantine Empire on Russia and Eastern Europe

Church architecture and religious art

Adoption of Greek alphabet to Slavic languages by St.Cyril

Trade routes between the Black & Baltic Sea

Adoption of Orthodox Christianity

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Eastern European History

The Filioque Controversy-The East didn’t agree with the West’s decision to add filioque (and son) into the nicene creed

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What council said the use of icons were permissible?

Second Council of Nicea

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