AP Bio Exam extensive vocabulary

studied byStudied by 11 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

Elements

1 / 245

246 Terms

1

Elements

The fundamental substances that make up all matter, consisting of atoms of the same atomic number.

New cards
2

Biological molecules

Molecules made up of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen used to build carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.

New cards
3

Trace elements

Elements required by an organism in small quantities, including iron, iodine, and copper.

New cards
4

Storage compounds

Compounds made up of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen used to store energy in organisms.

New cards
5

Cells

Basic unit of life, made up of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen.

New cards
6

Elements

Substances made up of one type of atom, including oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and others.

New cards
7

Atoms

The unit of life and building blocks of the physical world.

New cards
8

Protons

Positively charged (+) particles.

New cards
9

Neutrons

Uncharged particles.

New cards
10

Electrons

Negatively charged (–) particles.

New cards
11

Isotopes

Atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons in the nucleus.

New cards
12

Compounds

A substance consisting of two or more elements that are chemically bonded together.

New cards
13

Chemical bonds

The force that holds two atoms together in a molecule.

New cards
14

Ions

Charged forms of atoms that are formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another.

New cards
15

Ionic bond

A chemical bond formed between two atoms when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to the other.

New cards
16

Covalent bond

A chemical bond formed when electrons are shared between atoms.

New cards
17

Non-polar covalent bond

A covalent bond where electrons are shared equally between the atoms.

New cards
18

Polar covalent bond

A covalent bond where electrons are shared unequally between the atoms.

New cards
19

Acidic Solution

A solution that contains a lot of hydrogen ions (H+).

New cards
20

Basic Solution

A solution that contains a lot of hydroxide ions (OH–).

New cards
21

pH Scale

A scale used to measure the acidity or alkalinity of a solution, numbered from 1 to 14, with 7 considered neutral pH.

New cards
22

Hydrogen Ion Concentration

The concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution, which indicates whether it is acidic, basic, or neutral.

New cards
23

pH Formula

The formula used to calculate the pH of a solution, which is pH = –log [H+].

New cards
24

Logarithmic Scale

A scale in which each unit represents a tenfold change in hydrogen ion concentration on the pH scale.

New cards
25

Organic molecules

Molecules with carbon atoms

New cards
26

Inorganic compounds

Molecules that do not contain carbon atoms

New cards
27

Carbon

A versatile atom that can bind with other carbons, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen

New cards
28

Polymers

Chains of building blocks in macromolecules

New cards
29

Monomers

Individual building blocks of a polymer

New cards
30

Dehydration synthesis

A reaction that forms polymers by losing a water molecule

New cards
31

Hydrolysis

A reaction that breaks down polymers into monomers by adding a water molecule

New cards
32

Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids

Four classes of organic compounds central to life on Earth

New cards
33

Carbohydrates

Organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that are categorized as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides.

New cards
34

Monosaccharides

Simple sugars that are an energy source for cells and include glucose and fructose with a chemical formula of C6H12O6.

New cards
35

Disaccharides

Sugars formed by joining two monosaccharides with a glycosidic linkage, such as maltose, and can be broken down into two monosaccharides by adding water.

New cards
36

Polysaccharides

Complex carbohydrates made up of many repeated units of monosaccharides, such as starch, cellulose, and glycogen.

New cards
37

Starch

A polysaccharide that stores sugar in plants.

New cards
38

Cellulose

A polysaccharide made up of β-glucose and is a major part of the cell walls in plants, lending structural support.

New cards
39

Glycogen

A polysaccharide that stores sugar in animals.

New cards
40

Chitin

A polymer of β-glucose molecules that serves as a structural molecule in the walls of fungus and in the exoskeletons of arthropods.

New cards
41

Polypeptides

Organic compounds formed by joining a group of amino acids together in a "string" through peptide bonds. Once they twist and fold on themselves, they form a 3D structure called a protein.

New cards
42

Lipids

Organic compounds consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. They function as structural components of cell membranes, sources of insulation, signalling molecules, and a means of energy storage.

New cards
43

Phospholipids

Lipids with two hydrophobic fatty acid tails and one hydrophilic phosphate head. They have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties, making them amphipathic molecules.

New cards
44

Cholesterol

A four-ringed molecule found in membranes that generally increases membrane fluidity, except at very high temperatures. It is also important for making certain types of hormones and for making vitamin D.

New cards
45

Nucleic Acids

Molecules made up of simple units called nucleotides that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. DNA contains the hereditary "blueprints" of all life, while RNA is essential for protein synthesis.

New cards
46

Surface Area-to-Volume Ratio

The concept that as cells or organisms increase in size, their surface area-to-volume ratio decreases, leading to less efficient exchange of materials. Small organisms lose heat at much higher rates than larger organisms due to their efficient exchange of heat.

New cards
47

Prokaryotic Cells

Cells that lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. They are typically smaller and simpler in structure than eukaryotic cells.

New cards
48

Eukaryotic Cells

Cells that contain a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. They are typically larger and more complex in structure than prokaryotic cells.

New cards
49

Prokaryotic cell

A type of cell that is smaller and simpler than a eukaryotic cell, with no membrane-bound organelles. Bacteria and archaea are examples of prokaryotes.

New cards
50

Eukaryotic cell

A type of cell that is more complex than a prokaryotic cell and has many smaller structures called organelles. Fungi, protists, plants, and animals are examples of eukaryotes.

New cards
51

Plasma membrane

The outer envelope of the cell, made up of mostly phospholipids and proteins. It regulates the movement of substances into and out of the cell and is semipermeable.

New cards
52

Nucleus

The largest organelle in the cell that contains the cell's genetic material (DNA) and is responsible for directing the cell's activities and reproduction.

New cards
53

Ribosomes

Sites of protein synthesis in the cell, composed of two subunits (large and small) made of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and proteins. They can be free-floating or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).

New cards
54

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

A continuous channel that extends into many regions of the cytoplasm and provides mechanical support and transportation. The rough ER compartmentalizes the cell, while the smooth ER makes lipids and breaks down toxic chemicals.

New cards
55

Golgi complex

An organelle that modifies, processes, and sorts proteins synthesized by ribosomes on the rough ER. It packages the final products in vesicles for distribution outside of the cell.

New cards
56

Mitochondria

Organelles responsible for converting energy from organic molecules into ATP, the most common energy molecule in the cell. They have an inner and outer membrane, with the inner membrane forming folds called cristae.

New cards
57

Lysosomes

Organelles that contain digestive enzymes used to break down old, worn-out org

New cards
58

Passive Transport

Movement of molecules down a concentration gradient without the use of energy.

New cards
59

Simple Diffusion

Movement of small, hydrophobic molecules across the cell membrane without the assistance of proteins.

New cards
60

Facilitated Diffusion

Movement of molecules across the cell membrane with the assistance of channel-type proteins.

New cards
61

Osmosis

Movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high water potential to an area of low water potential.

New cards
62

Tonicity

The measure of osmotic pressure gradient between two solutions separated by a selectively permeable membrane.

New cards
63

Active Transport

Movement of molecules against a concentration gradient with the use of energy.

New cards
64

Endocytosis

The process by which the cell membrane engulfs large molecules or particles to form a vacuole or vesicle.

New cards
65

Bulk Flow

The one-way movement of fluids brought about by pressure.

New cards
66

Bioenergetics

The study of how cells obtain and use energy.

New cards
67

Thermodynamics

The study of energy transformation.

New cards
68

Enzyme

A biological catalyst that speeds up reactions by lowering the activation energy.

New cards
69

Enzyme Specificity

The ability of an enzyme to catalyze only one kind of reaction.

New cards
70

Enzyme-Substrate Complex

The temporary binding of an enzyme to one or more substrates.

New cards
71

Induced-fit

The change in shape of an enzyme to accommodate the shape of its substrate.

New cards
72

Enzyme Regulation

The control of enzymatic activity by regulating the conditions that influence the shape of the enzyme.

New cards
73

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate, a molecule that stores and releases energy.

New cards
74

Cellular Respiration

The process of breaking down sugar to make ATP.

New cards
75

Photosynthesis

The process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy.

New cards
76

Calvin-Benson Cycle

The dark reactions that use ATP and NADPH produced in the light reactions to convert CO2 into carbohydrates in the stroma of the leaf.

New cards
77

Temporal Separation

A strategy used by CAM plants to separate carbon fixation and the Calvin cycle by incorporating CO2 into organic acids at night and releasing it during the day.

New cards
78

Carbon Fixation

A process used by C4 plants to fix CO2 in a different part of the leaf from the Calvin cycle, preventing photorespiration and producing a four-carbon molecule as the first product.

New cards
79

Electron Transport Chain

The final stage of aerobic respiration where electrons from NADH and FADH2 are transported through a series of proteins to create a proton gradient that powers ATP synthesis.

New cards
80

Pyruvic Acid

The three-carbon molecule produced by the splitting of glucose in the first stage of glycolysis, which also results in the net production of two ATP and two NADH molecules.

New cards
81

Cell communication

The process by which cells of multi-celled organisms coordinate their activities by communicating with one another through cell-to-cell contact or cell signaling.

New cards
82

Long-range signaling

A type of cell signaling that affects cells throughout the organism, often done through signaling molecules called ligands that bind to receptors and trigger a response by changing the shape of the receptor protein.

New cards
83

Signal transduction

The process by which an external signal is transmitted to the inside of a cell, usually involving three steps: a signaling molecule binding to a specific receptor, activation of a signal transduction pathway, and production of a cellular response.

New cards
84

Plasma membrane receptor

An integral membrane protein that transmits signals from the extracellular space into the cytoplasm, binding a particular molecule in a highly specific way. It is required for signaling molecules that cannot enter the cell.

New cards
85

Ligand-gated ion channels

Membrane receptors that open or close an ion channel upon binding a particular ligand.

New cards
86

Catalytic (enzyme-linked) receptors

Membrane receptors that have an enzymatic active site on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane and are initiated by ligand binding at the extracellular surface.

New cards
87

G-protein-linked receptor

Membrane receptors that bind a different version of a G-protein on the intracellular side when a ligand is bound extracellularly, causing activation of secondary messengers within the cell.

New cards
88

Signal transduction cascades

Processes that amplify a signal in a cell.

New cards
89

Homeostasis

The set of conditions under which living things can successfully survive.

New cards
90

Negative feedback pathway

A feedback pathway that works by turning itself off using the end product of the pathway.

New cards
91

Positive feedback pathway

A feedback pathway that involves an end product playing a role and further stimulating the pathway instead of inhibiting it.

New cards
92

Cell Cycle

The period from the beginning of one cell division to the beginning of the next, divided into two periods: interphase and mitosis.

New cards
93

Interphase

The growing phase of the cell cycle, divided into three stages: G1, S, G2. The S phase is the most important phase, where the cell replicates its genetic material.

New cards
94

Sister Chromatids

Identical strands of DNA that are duplicated during interphase and held together by a structure called the centromere.

New cards
95

Cell Cycle Checkpoints

Control mechanisms that ensure proper cell division is happening in eukaryotic cells, regulated by proteins called cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs).

New cards
96

Oncogenes

Mutated genes that can convert normal cells into cancerous cells, while tumour suppressor genes produce proteins that prevent the conversion of normal cells into cancer cells.

New cards
97

Mitosis

The process of cellular division, occurring in four stages: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

New cards
98

Chromatin

Genetic material in its decondensed state, occurring during interphase once daughter cells are produced and the cell goes back to its original state.

New cards
99

Purpose of Mitosis

Achieving the production of identical daughter cells and maintaining the proper number of chromosomes from generation to generation, for growth, repair, or asexual reproduction.

New cards
100

Gregor Mendel

The monk who discovered genetics and is known as the father of genetics.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 35 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7972 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(63)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 391 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(8)
note Note
studied byStudied by 424 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 53 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 73 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 498 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard89 terms
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard120 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard548 terms
studied byStudied by 32 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard77 terms
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard34 terms
studied byStudied by 140 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard28 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard144 terms
studied byStudied by 46 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)