Interwars - WWII

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totalitarianism

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65 Terms

1

totalitarianism

System of government where the leader controls all aspects of society (social, cultural, economic, military, political)

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2

Sun Yixan

Leader of the Kuomintang party of China; became the president of the new Republic in China in 1912

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3

nationalism, people's rights, people's livelihood

Three Principles of the People

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4

Yuan Shikai

Chinese general and president of the Chinese Republic from 1912-1916; betrayed the democratic ideals of the revolution

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5

May Fourth Movement

A 1919 protest in China protesting how the Treaty of Versailles gave Japan Chinese territories

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6

Mao Zedong

Founder of the communist party in China; Believed he could bring revolution to a rural country

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7

Tiannamen Square

Site in Beijing where Chinese students and workers gathered to demand political openness in 1989. The demonstration was crushed by Chinese military with great loss of life.

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8

Chinese Civil War

Between Chiang's nationalists and the Chinese Communists led by Mao Zedong.

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9

Long March

Jiang's men surrounded the communist's mountain stronghold

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10

Kuomintang

China's nationalist party that pushed for modernization and nationalization

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11

Indian National Congress and the Muslim League of 1906

the 2 groups formed to get rid of foreign rule in India

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12

Rowlatt Acts

laws that allowed British government to arrest protesters without trial for as long as two years

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13

Amritsar Massacre

To protest the Rowlatt Act, Indians gathered in Amritsar, where British troops fired on the crowd killing several hundred

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14

Gahndi

father of Indian Independence; wanted no violent protests

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15

Salt March

Gandhi led a march over 240 miles to protest the British monopoly on salt in India

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16

Government of India Act

passed by the British parliament in 1935, provided local self-gov't and limited democratic elections to India

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17

Mustafa Kemal

Leader of Turkish nationalists who led the Turkish people to stop the invasion from Greece and overthrow the last Ottoman sultan; became president of the New Republic of Turkey

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18

Reza Shah Pahlavi

Persian leader who set out to modernize the country

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19

Stalin

Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition

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20

5 year plan

Stalin's plan to industrialize the USSR: Coal, oil, steel, and electricity production increased; Introduced collectivization to increase food production

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21

Collectivization

a system in which private farms are eliminated and peasants work land owned by the government

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22

Cold War

Stalin was mad that the allies didn't need the Soviet Union's help with defeating Japan because they had the atomic bomb

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23

Secret Police

the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD); Stalin used them to kill people he thought were a threat/disloyal

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24

The Great Purge/Great Terror

founders of the Soviet Union were convicted of counter-revolutionary activity and executed

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25

Aspects of Fascism

extreme nationalism; anti-communist; Economy serves the state; Cultural superiority; force is a legitimate part of politics

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26

Fascism

A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition

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27

Mussolini

Fascist leader of Italy during WW2; believed that Italians were culturally superior

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28

Black Shirts

The private army of Mussolini

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29

Fasci d'Azione Rivoluzionaria

the group founded by Mussolini that was made up of Italian war veterans

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30

Ladder Impact of '29

Mussolini allowed Vatican city to be an independent nation

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31

jobs, bright futures, lebensraum

Hitler's promises he made in his speeches

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32

Lebensraum

living space

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33

Hitler

Dictator of Germany

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34

Jewish people and Communists

the scapegoats Hitler used to rise to power

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35

Germany's hatred for Jews

saw them as a biological threat; Accused of subversion and war profiteering

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36

Parliamentary Weimar Republic

One of the first tasks was to implement the Treaty of Versailles

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37

Treaty of Versailles effect on Germany

Losing 1/10 of its territory; Dismantled army; Pay reparations; Nationalists saw the treaty as humiliating

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38

The Great Depression

the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s

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39

Agricultural crisis, declining sales and construction, and inflated stock values

underlying causes of the Great Depression

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40

Roosevelt's New Deal

Solutions to increase employment and production (public work projects, like roads, buildings, dams) since US unemployment was at 25%

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41

Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

A secret agreement between the Germans and the Russians that said that they would not attack each other

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42

Hitler Invades Czechlovakia

he wanted to include all Germans within the Reich (realm) and more living space for the german population

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43

Munich Conference

A settlement reached by Germany, Great Britain, France, and Italy that allowed Germany to annex Sudetenland, which was a part of Czechoslovakia.

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44

Policy of Appeasement

Countries would give Germany the things and land they wanted to try and avoid war

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45

Munich Crisis

Germany's demand that it be allowed to occupy part of Czechoslovakia

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46

Kristallnacht

"Night of Broken Glass," when Nazis attacked Jews throughout Germany

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47

Anschluss

The annexation of Austria by Germany in 1938

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48

Guernica

a painting by Picasso that shows the tragedies of war and the suffering it inflicts upon individuals, particularly innocent civilians

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49

Franciso Franco

This Fascist dictator of Spain was supported by Mussolini and HItler

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50

Holocaust

the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler

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51

Einsatzgruppen

units of the SS that went from town to town to take the ppl that lived there (mainly Jews) and put them in a pit and shot them dead

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52

Final Solution

Hitler's program of systematically killing the entire Jewish people by building both concentration and extermination camps

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53

Himler

Leader of the SS

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54

Joeseph Goebbels

Minister of Propaganda

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55

Hermann Goring

Hitler's right-hand man

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56

Chambler

prime minister of the UK until 1940

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57

Winston Churchill

Prime Minister of Great Britain during WWII

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58

George VI

King of England during WWII

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59

Bernard Montgomery

tank commander for Britain

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60

Eisenhower

supreme commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force in Europe

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61

Douglas McArthur

allied commander in the Pacific; island-hopping campaign

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62

George Marshall

US General; created plan for rebuilding Europe (Marshall plan)

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63

Chiang Kai-shek

ruler of China in WW2

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64

Blitzkrieg

a term used to describe a method of offensive warfare designed to strike a swift, focused blow at an enemy using mobile, maneuverable forces, including armored tanks and air support

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65

Battle of Midway

The turning point in the Pacific

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