forensics 25 master set

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the accurate chemical name for alcohol found in alcoholic beverages

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the accurate chemical name for alcohol found in alcoholic beverages


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alcohol is produced though the process of


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the reactants and products involved in the creation of champagne

white grapes + yeast → alcohol + carbon dioxide

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which type of alcoholic beverage has the highest concentration of alcohol by volume

distilled spirits

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which area of the brain is the first ti be affected noticeably by alcohol that is absorbed into the body


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people are considered to be legally impaired in canada if they

have more than 80mg of alcohol per 100mL of blood

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the blood alcohol concentration of a person increases when

twenty minutes after drinking alcohol

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which country has a higher bac legal limit than canada


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the countries in which alcohol consumption is not permitted due to religious reasons is

the arab states

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causes difficulty hearing and seeing clearly, you don’t exhibit good judgment

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makes someone unable to touch their nose w/ closed eyes, and can also cause frequent stumbling and falling

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causes frequent urination where the urine contains a high concentration of water

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medulla oblongata

causes a decrease in blood pressure and breathing rate that can lead to unconsciousness

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two symptoms of alcohol consumption that may impair one’s ability to drive

  1. poor judgment of situations

    • may cause them to turn across traffic or lane change w/o enough time to safely do same, putting themselves and those around in danger

  2. jerky or uncoordinated movements

    • may cause the driver to veer into oncoming traffic or into the ditch

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when alcohol is absorbed into the blood and is being transporting through the blood what does it not do?

change chemically in any way

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how does the concentration of alcohol in the blood compare w/ the concentration of alcohol in the alveoli?

the alcohol concentration is 2100x greater in the alveoli

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individualized physical evidence

is unique and can be directly linked to a specific person and/or source

  • ex) fingerprints, dna, bullets, bullet casings, dental


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identified physical evidence

shares a common source; it can be grouped into a class of items having similar properties

  • ex) clothing, shoe prints, blood type

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why is physical evidence important?

it can confirm the identity of the suspected individual

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which type of physical evidence is more important and why?

individualized evidence since it can be linked directly to a specific individual

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visible fingerprints

are easily seen by the human eye

  • may be left on an object at a crime scene because of blood, perspiration, dirt, or oils on a suspect’s hands

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latent fingerprint

are hidden or concealed in some way so they aren’t visible to the naked eye that need to be enhanced in some way to be seen

  • usually composed of perspiration and/or body oils

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physical fingerprints

leave a distinct impression is left upon soft materials like wax, food items, or the caulking around windows and doors

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radial loop (left hand)

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ulnar loop (left hand)

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ulnar loop (right hand)

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radial loop (right hand)

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loop fingerprints

  • approx 60% of people have this pattern

  • lines rise, curve, and return

  • sub-classifications are ulnar loop, radial loop, and double-twinned loop

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how to distinguish between a right and left fingerprint loop pattern

  1. you have two bones in your lower arm: the ulna bone, which is lined up w/ the pinky finger, and your radial bone, which is lined up w/ your thumb

  2. the bone that the begins and ends at determines the type of loop

    • known as a road test

  3. you must know if the print came from the right or left hand

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double-twinned loop

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whorl fingerprints

  • approx 34% of people have this pattern

  • lines form concentric (having a common centre) circles

  • sub-classifications are plain whorl, central pocket whorl, and accidental whorl

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simple plain whorl

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central pocket whorl

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accidental whorl

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arch fingerprint

  • approx 6% of people have this pattern

  • lines cross smoothly or upthrust at the centre

  • sub-classification are plain simple arch and tented arch

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plain simple arch

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tented arch

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how is a fingerprint impression made?

oils and sweat mix → settle on the finger ridges → finger pad comes into contact w/ an object → the mixture leaves a residue or fingerprint impression

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how to enhance a latent fingerprint

  1. lifting powder application

  2. iodine fumigation

  3. cyanoacrylate fumigation

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lifting powder application

  • works best on smooth, solid surfaces like glasses, door handles, steering wheels, credit cards, car doors, knife blades, and some knife or gun handles

  • the powder is usually made of metals like aluminum, tin, iron, or carbon or a combo of homogeneous metals

  • used a piece of wide, clear, smooth tape

  • the brush has very soft bristles made of bird feathers, squirrel or camel hair, or fiberglass

    • could also have a magnet at the end to attract metal'-based lifting powders not sticking to the surface when applied

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iodine fumigation

  • human sweat is a mixture of sodium chloride (NaCl)

  • fixing solution is used

  • iodine crystals give off vapors (sublimation) that adsorb physically to the oily substances of a fingerprint

  • turns the fingerprint dark blue after a reaction

  • is permanent

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cyanoacrylate fumigation

  • in a sealed chamber, heat and moisture are introduced and the ‘super glue’ will turn from a liquid to a gas

  • works best on dark surfaces w/ smooth or slightly textured surfaces

  • needs to be photographed

  • turns the impression white

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advantages of each latent enhancement method`

  1. lifting powder application: useful to identify on hard surfaces

  2. iodine fumigation: extremely easy to see

  3. cyanoacrylate fumigation: is permanent via photograph

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disadvantages of each latent fingerprint enhancement method

  1. lifting powder application: inhaling the powder is harmful to the lung tissue

  2. iodine fumigation: developed impressions aren’t permanent

  3. cyanoacrylate fumigation: leaves a white residue on surrounding surfaces that came into contact w/ the fumes

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what latent fingerprint enhancement technique was used on cheri jo bates’s car (zodiac killer case)?

lifting powder

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trace evidence

  • a general term for evidence that cannot be seen clearly by the human eye

  • is significant and should not be ignored

    • common examples are human hair, animal hair, carpet fibers, clothing fibers, glass fragments, and paint fragments.

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trace evidence diagram

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trace evidence collection procedure

  1. securing the Crime Scene and Questioning:

    • police restrict access to the crime scene

    • victims, witnesses, and suspects are questioned

    • no one is allowed in or out until spoken to by the police

    • prevents disturbance of potential evidence

  2. observations of the Crime Scene:

    • forensic investigators take photos and videos

    • crime scene details are documented

    • evidence is photographed, and observations are noted

    • trace evidence is lifted using specialized tools

  3. collection of Trace Evidence:

    • investigators wear protective suits

    • trace evidence is collected gently to avoid contamination

    • each piece is labeled with relevant details

    • double packaging ensures evidence preservation

    • tools include vacuums, forceps, cotton swabs, and various containers

    • evidence is stored in lockers, with larger ones for homicide cases.

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examples of inorganic or synthetic trace evidence

  • carpet fiber: household and automobile

  • paint

  • dust

  • soil: silicates, minerals, carbonates, oxides

  • glass

  • fabrics: nylon, lycra, rayon, polyester, acryluc

  • plastics

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examples of organic or natural trace evidence

  • fabric: cotton, sisal, cashmere, leather, hemp, linen, leather, jute, mohair, wool, silk

  • human hair: body, pubic, scalp, eyelash

  • carpet fiber: wool, sisal, hemp

  • animal hair

  • sweat

  • blood

  • feces

  • soil: bacteria, humus, manure, decayed plant/animal matter

  • semen

  • skin

  • saliva

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types of human hair

  1. head hair:

    • longest body hair; may determine gender

    • sun-bleached or color-treated hair show little variation in the medulla

    • roots may be darker

    • often has cut or split tips

  2. body hair:

    • short (less than 1 cm), fine, and thin

    • typically arc-shaped and lighter in color

    • humans shed these hairs less frequently

  1. eyebrow or eyelash hair:

    • short (less than 1 cm) and tapered

    • usually darker than head and body hair.

  1. pubic hair:

    • dark (brown or black), very curly, stiff

    • thicker and longer (1-2 cm) than body and eyebrow/eyelash hair

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various strands of color-treated hair

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gross anatomy of a hair

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parts of a hair

  1. hair root: only part of the hair that requires nutrients and oxygen from a follicle

  2. hair tip:

  3. hair shaft:

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<p>rounded (club) root</p>

rounded (club) root

a root of human hair that fell out naturally

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<p>follicle-attached root</p>

follicle-attached root

a root of hair that was forcibly removed possibly during a violent struggle where the follicle is still attached to the root (the follicle looks like transparent skin)

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<p>dark band root</p>

dark band root

likely indicates the hair was shed after the person has died :(

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<p>frayed root</p>

frayed root

likely came from a cat

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<p>spade-shaped root</p>

spade-shaped root

likely came from a dog

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<p>wineglass-shaped root</p>

wineglass-shaped root

likely came from a deer

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the hair tip

  • can be distinguished from the root since it will never have skin directly attached to it

    • slightly rounded tip: indicates the individual has not cut their hair in a long period of time (likely more the four weeks since last cut)

    • linear or straight tip: indicates individual has recently cut their hair

    • blackened or frayed tip: indicates the individual has come into contact w/ flames or high heat

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blackened or frayed tip photograph

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the hair shaft

  • is found in the region between the root and tip

  • three parts of it are called the cuticle (outermost layer), cortex, and medulla (middle region)

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<p>imbricate cuticle</p>

imbricate cuticle

scale pattern found in all human hairs and some animals

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<p>coronal cuticle</p>

coronal cuticle

scale pattern found in the hair of bats and small rodents like mice, rats, and vole

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<p>spinous cuticle</p>

spinous cuticle

scale pattern found in the hair of minks, seals, and cats

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<p>unisereal medulla </p>

unisereal medulla

found in hair from a cat or rabbit

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<p>lattice medulla</p>

lattice medulla

found only in hair from a deer, elk, or goat

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<p>multisereal medulla</p>

multisereal medulla

found in hair from a rabbit or chinchilla

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<p>vacuolated medulla</p>

vacuolated medulla

found in hair from a dog, red fox, or cattle

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<p>fragmented amorphous medulla</p>

fragmented amorphous medulla

found in human hair of people of hair colors that usually isn’t black

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<p>continuous amorphous medulla</p>

continuous amorphous medulla

found in human hair that is black in color and commonly are of asian decent

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what fiber evidence can help prove

  1. occurrence of physical contact:

    • discovery of a single transferred fiber increases likelihood of physical contact

    • many fibers found on clothing from suspect, victim, or crime scene strongly suggest contact

    • each fiber is treated as independent evidence

    • multiple pieces of evidence refute the argument of no contact between suspect and victim or crime scene

  2. type of contact:

    • violent physical contact over time often leads to the exchange of numerous fibers among suspect, victim, and crime scene

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direct (primary) fiber transer

occurs when a fiber is directly exchanged between fabrics

  • ex) a suspect's hair on the victim's clothing

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indirect (secondary)

happens when a fiber on the suspect is placed on the victim or vice versa

  • ex) a carpet fiber from a suspect's home is transferred to the suspect's clothing and then to the victim

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natural fibers from plants

  1. cotton fibers:

    • helps in crime investigations because of its variations

    • vary in length with some being short while others are long

    • naturally twist in different ways w/ some being tight and others being loose

  2. flax fibers:

    • since cotton fibers like white cotton and denim are so common, less common natural plant fibers are more help

      • ex) flax (linen), sisal, jute, and hemp

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natural fibers from animals

  • most common type is from the wool of sheep

    • coarser or thicker than cotton

  • can also be more uncommon wool made from camels, alpacas, cashmere, and mohair

  • fine wool fibers are used for clothing while coarser wool is used in carpet

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man-made fibres

  • are created by machines from natural or synthetic chemicals\

  • more than 50% of all fibers are this

  • polyester and nylon are the most common w/ acrylic and rayon being the next most common synthetics

  • many of those fibers have unique manufacturing-specific textures and shapes

  • only only produced for a limited time

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what does it mean when red blood cells are anucleated?

is an evolutionary trait that allows oxygen to be carried throughout the body only in human

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what is the rarest blood type?

blood type ab

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identifying one type of blood enzyme or protein in blood evidence is helpful since?

it helps narrow down the list of suspects

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  • reacts w/ hydroxide ions

  • is a colorless acid-base indicator

  • turns pink in a basic solution

  • the hemoglobin in blood makes the blood basic

  • results are immediate

  • can detect blood concentration w/ a ratio of 1: 5 million

  • gives a positive result for any type of blood

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  • is used when investigators suspect the blood evidence has been cleaned up

  • is attracted to the iron pigment of red blood cells

  • produces a greenish-blue light when it comes into contact

  • sensitive w/ the ability to detect blood w/ a ratio of 1: 5 million parts

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free-falling blood droplets onto glass

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free-falling blood droplet onto cement/concrete

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partially dried bloodstain smeared from activity

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medium-velocity impact blood spatter from something such as being beaten by a blunt object

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high-velocity impact blood spatter from something such as a gunshot wound

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why might an investigator spray a crime scene w/ hydrochloric acid before using luminol?

to speed up the decomposition of the red blood cells

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fast blue b test

  • reacts w/ acid phosphate in the the proteins of the prostate gland’s secretion

    • turns from blue to a deep purple when it comes into contact

  • indicates the presence of semen

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polygraph test

monitors perspiration, heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate

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control question technique (cqt)

  • aren’t directly related to the criminal case

  • used in the pre-test interview

  • important to convince the subject that they just as the relevant questions

  • used for comparision purposes

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relevant/irrelevant technique (i/r)

  • is a mixture of questions relevant to the crime and irrelevant questions

    • ex) do you own a handgun? (relevant)

    • are you forty years old? (irrelevant)

  • an innocent person will have a similar physiological response to both questions, but a guilty person will react more strongly to the questions relevant to the crime

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subject was truthful

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suspect was deceptive (lying or misleading)

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letters of a forged document are usually?

larger than normal

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for a dna match to be declared, how many unique sections of dna must be found?


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