Unit 6: Cell Division

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What is the cell theory?

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1

What is the cell theory?

states that all cells come from preexisting cells

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2

What is cell division?

The process by which cells reproduce

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3

All cells contain what?

genes

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4

What are genes?

protein coding sequence in our DNA that makes us, US

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5

When cells divide the genetic information is what?

copied and separated into each daughter cell

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6

DNA (genes) must be what in preparation for this cell division?

packaged tightly

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7

What are chromosomes?

bundle of tightly packed DNA

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8

Where are chromosomes located and why?

the nucleus because thats where DNA is

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9

What are chromosomes composed of?

DNA and protiens

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10

What is the protein in chromosomes called?

histone

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11

What is DNA first coiled around?

histones

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12

After DNA is coiled around a bunch of histones what happens?

the histone complexes are then packed tightly together

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13

The tightly packed bundles of histones and DNA make up what?

chromosomes

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14

Chromosomes are composed 2 identical what?

chromatids

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15

What are chromatids?

identical strands of chromosomes known as sister chromatids

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16

What are these sister chromatids attached to?

a complex protein called centromere

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17

What is the protein that connects the 2 chromatids?

centromere

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18

What is a chromosome composed of?

DNA and proteins (histones)

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19

The number of chromosomes does not correlate to what?

the complexity of an organism

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20

What are homologous chromosomes?

one of two pairs of morphologically similar chromosomes

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21

What is a dipoid?

a cell that contains both chromosomes of a homologous pair

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22

2N refers to

a diploid cell

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23

What is a haploid?

a cell that only has one chromosome of each homologous pair

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24

1N refers to

a haploid cell

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25

What is the cell cycle?

the sequence of five events of cell division: includes 3 phases of interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis

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26

What is interphase?

the period of cell growth and development that proceeds mitosis

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27

What are the 3 phases of interphase?

G1, S, G2

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28

What is the G1 phase?

Cell growth

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29

What is the S phase?

DNA synthesis

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30

What is G2 phase?

cell undergoes rapid growth to prepare for mitosis, synthesizes necessary enzymes and structures

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31

What is mitosis?

division of the cell nucleus in which the chromosomes of the parent cell divide into two identical sets

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What are the phases of mitosis?

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase

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What is early prophase?

breaking down of nucleus and chromosome formation

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34

What is late prophase?

spindle fibers form

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35

What is metaphase?

the line up of chromosomes in the middle of the cell

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Where do spindle fibers come from?

centrioles

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What are polar fibers?

fibers that go from on centriole to the other centriole

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What are kinetochore fibers?

fibers that move the chromosomes to the equator, or center, of the cell

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39

What is meiosis?

the process of nuclear division that reduces the number of chromosomes by half

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40

What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis?

mitosis deals with body cells and meiosis deals with sex cells

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41

What is meiosis I?

first division; homologous chromosomes are separated into separate cells, follows interphase just like mitosis

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What are the steps of meiosis I?

Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I

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What is meiosis II?

the second division; chromatids of each chromosome are separated into separate cells

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What are the steps of meiosis II?

Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II

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45

Prophase I?

spindle appears

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46

What is synapis?

Pairing of homologous chromosomes (prophase I)

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47

What is tetrads?

group of two chromosomes, the tetra "four" refers to the amount of chromatids

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48

Metaphase I?

tetrads move to the equator of the cell, they are moved by spindle fibers, and homologous pairs stay together

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49

Anaphase I?

Homologous pairs of chromosomes separate, each chromosome is still composed of 2 chromatids and a centromere

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50

Telephase I?

Cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells

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51

Meiosis II?

occurs in each cell formed during meiosis I

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52

Prophase II?

chromosomes coil again and new spindle fibers begin to form

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53

Metaphase II?

chromosomes are lined up on the equator of the cell, spindle fibers attach to centromeres

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54

Anaphase II?

centromeres divide, spindle fibers pull each chromatid to the opposite poles

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55

Telephase II?

spindle fibers dissolve, nuclear membrane forms, cells begin to divide (don't fully divide until cytokinesis)

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56

Each new cell created in meiosis is ____________?

haploid

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57

Gametes

sexual reproductive cells

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Ootid

egg cell that receives almost all of the cytoplasm

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Polar bodies

three other cells that receive very little or no cytoplasm and eventually disintegrate

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60

Each meiotic division results in ______ haploid egg cell.

one

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asexual reproduction

the production of offspring from one parent (no union of gametes)

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sexual reproduction

production of offspring through meiosis and fusion of gametes

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Genetic recombination

results from crossing over and homologous pairs of chromosomes separate independently

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64

Why is sexual reproduction important?

genetic variation

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What phase does crossing over occur?

prophase 1 of meiosis

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What are the daughter cells of meiosis called?

gametes

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