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Demography Transition Model

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43 Terms

1

Demography Transition Model

A model that can be used to show the changes in population as the economy and industry of a country also change. Includes birth and death rates.

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2

Gravity Model

A model which holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service

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3

Central Place Theory

A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.

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4

ETM Stage 1

pestilence and famine

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5

Sector Model

A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).

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6

Multiple Nuclei Model

A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.

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7

Peripheral Model

A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.

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8

Von Thunen Model

An agricultural model that spatially describes agricultural activity in terms of rent. Activities that require intensive cultivation and cannot be transported over great distances pay higher rent to be close to the market. Conversely, activities that are more extensive , with goods that are easy to transport, are located farther from the market where rent is less.

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9

Migration Transition Model

Migration trends follow demographic transition stages. People become increasingly mobile as industrialization develops. More international migration is seen in stage 2 as migrants search for more space and opportunities in countries in stages 3 and 4. Stage-4 countries show less emigration and more intraregional migration

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10

Boserup Hypothesis

Based on the observation that explains how population increase necessitates increased inputs of labor and technology to compensate for reductions in the natural yields of swidden farming.

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11

Concentric Zone Model

A structural model of the American central city that suggests the existence of five concentric land-use rings arranged around a common center.

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12

Malthusian Theory

The theory that population grows faster than food supply

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13

Heartland Theory

Hypothesis proposed by Halford MacKinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world.

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14

Rimland Theory

the belief of Nicholas Spykman that domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provide a base for world conquest

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15

Urban Realms Model

a simplified description of urban land use, especially descriptive of the modern North American city. it features a number of dispersed, peripheral centers of dynamic commercial and industrial activity linked by sophisticated urban transportation networks.

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16

World Systems Theory

Theory originated by Immanuel Wallerstein and illuminated by his three-tier structure, proposing that social change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world.

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17

Burgess Model

land uses are arranged around the CBD in concentric circles, with the profitable uses being found closest to the city center

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18

Organic Theory

The view that states resemble biological organisms with life cycles that include stages of youth, maturity, and old age.

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19

bid-rent curve

The concept that the concentric circles in Burgess's concentric zone model are based on the amount people are willing to pay for land in each zone

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20

Domino Theory

A theory that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control.

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21

Latin American City Model

Griffin-Ford model. Developed by Ernst Griffin and Larry Ford. Blends traditional Latin American culture with the forces of globalization. The CBD is dominant; it is divided into a market sector and a modern high-rise sector. The elite residential sector is on the extension of the CBD in the "spine". The end of the spine of elite residency is the "mall" with high-priced residencies. The further out, less wealthy it gets. The poorest are on the outer edge.

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22

Least Cost Theory

Model developed by Alfred Weber according to which the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three critical expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration.

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23

ETM Stage 2

age of receding pandemics

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24

ETM Stage 3

degenerative and human created diseases

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25

ETM Stage 4

delayed degenerative diseases

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26

MTM stage 1

High daily or seasonal mobility in search of food

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27

MTM stage 2

High international emigration and interregional migration from rural to urban areas

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28

MTM Stage 3

High international immigration and intraregional migration from cities to suburbs

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29

Von Thunen First Ring

Items expensive to deliver and must reach markets quickly or they will spoil. This includes market-oriented gardens and milk producers.

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30

Von Thunen Second ring

The next ring out from the cities contained wood lots, where timber was cut for construction and fuel; closeness to market is important for this commodity because of its weight

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31

Von Thunen Third ring

grains and field crops

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32

Von Thunen Fourth Ring

animal grazing

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33

Ravenstein's Laws of Migration

A set of 11 "laws" that can be organized into three groups: the reasons why migrants move, the distance they typically move, and their characteristics.

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34

Boserup's Theory

said food supply is impacted by population growth; as population increases, humans will develop new technologies to increase food supply production

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35

Rostow's First Stage

traditional society. Limited technology

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36

Rostow's Second Stage

Preconditions for Take-off. FDI and foreign markets influence the country to utilise their primary sector- agricultural or extractive industry

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37

Rostow's Third stage

Take-off. The country now installs infrastructure and the social elite now come through. This allows the country to 'take off' and develop their secondary sector- manufacturing

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38

Rostow's Fifth Stage

High Mass Consumption. The country now exploits comparative advantage in international trade.

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39

Dependency Theory

This theory states that the core countries depend on the periphery for labor and raw materials while the periphery depend on the core for goods.

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40

Weber's Least Cost Theory

Industries are located where the transportation costs of raw materials to the factory and the finished product to the market are at a minimum. If raw materials are heavier than the finished product, the factory would be located closer to the location of the materials. If the finished product is more costly to transport than the materials, the industry would be located closer to the market.

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41

Closer to markets

Where should bulk-gaining industries be located?

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42

Closer to sources of raw materials

Where should bulk-reducing industries be located

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43

Rostow's Fourth Stage

Drive to Maturity. Social, economic, political and legal institutions all develop as the investment in manufacturing rises.The

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