History - Post WW1 - (1920s and 30s)

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When war came to an end what were women expected to do?

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When war came to an end what were women expected to do?

Women were expected to return home leaving jobs open for returning veterans

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By the end of 1920 how man veterans were unemployed?

20% of veterans were unemployed

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During WW1 what was the highest demand and what did they need to do?

The demand for factory workers were so high so they needed to hire women

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Spanish Flu

Huge pandemic that occured in 1918 when soldiers returned home, they believed it started in birds then pigs then humans, parades and celebrations helped the flu spread

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Gov't Response to Spanish Flu

Canadas public health department closed down schools, theatres, and discouraged hand shaking, health care shortage as nurses and doctors were over seas, 50 million people died world wide

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First Nations

Still not classified as "persons" under law, suffered horrid conditions on reserves, potlatch (sacred ceremony) outlawed

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Aboriginal Titles (Land Claims)

Most British Columbia land was not officially signed over to the government in treaties but the government started to take over their land anyway, federal government forbids land claims by indigenous people, it wasn't until 1995 when indigenous veterans were recognized for their contributions

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African Americans

Discrimination and racism flourished throughout the nation: segregated school strictly, seperated theatres and public spaces, banning parks and public swimming pools from African Canadians, First Union (brotherhood of railway workers) finally accepted "coloured" workers

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Ku Klux Klan

A Klan established in 1921 all across Canada, they had financial hatred for all things Roman Catholic's, immigration and minorities, appealed to few Canadians and remained obscure, excpet in Saskatchewan with about 40,000 members, in the 1929 provincial election the klans helped end 24 years of liberal rule in Saskatchewan

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Asian Canadians

Canadian government implants the Chinese head tax in 1885 and increases its use in the 1920s, Chinese exclusion act in 1923 only allowed business owners, diplomats and students into Canada, Canada came into a "Gentlemans" agreement with Japan to limit amount of people emigrating to Canada, British Columbia passed laws restricting Asian Canadians from owning land in certain areas

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What did women ask for in 1920?

Women asked to obtain post-secondary degrees, be able to be more thant teachers, clerks and nurses, and to be allowed to work after they were married

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What was expected of women?

Women were expected to make room for men employement wise and to take on their "traditional roles"

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What women did (Women Christian Temperance Union)?

Many women joined the WCTU because they were fighting for womens rights and family values, the main focuses were womens rights (voting and legal), family rights (prohibition), working rights (short days and vacation days)

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Women Pop Culture

The new women of the 1920s wanted freedom and equality, young girls were starting to recieve more rights, women began to see that they were free and independed with created a new image different from their mothers

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The Flapper

Young women of the 1920s that behaved and dressed in a radical fashion (smoked, drank, partied, danced, voted, cut hair, make up, giddy, took risks)

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Women in Sports

Female athletes were very popular, crowds for men teams were smaller than womens, in 1928 females debuted at the summer olympics and won many metals

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Women in Politics

Women took on a role of promoting social issues (equal rights and family rights), they did this through protests and marches, some entered the world of politics and in the 1921 elections 5 women ran for office, one was elected (Agnes Macphail)

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The Famous Five

5 women in Canada who fought to have women declared "persons" under the law: Emily Murphy, Henrietta Muir Edwards, Louise McKinney, Irene Parlby, Nellie McClung

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Emily Murphy

First female judge in the British Empire, in Edmonton she was appointed Judge of the Juvenile Court in 1916, within a year they would make her a provincial judge

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Why was Emily's Court Eventful?

On her first day male lawyers refused to have their cases heard because women were not considered people by the Britsh North American Act, this meant that women fell under the law as a "resident of Canada" but not as "persons" preventing them from attaining some political positions

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Borden in 1921

The Montreal Womens Club asked Borden to appoint Emily Murphy as Canadian Senate (to test the law), Borden said he could not appoint her and he couldn't do anything to make her a "qualified person" under law

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Persons Case

A court case on Murphys 60th birthday in which the Famous Five successfully fought to have women declared "persons" under Section 24 of the Britsh North American Act in 1929 this symbolized the right of women to participate in all facets of life, to Dream big and realize their potential

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Carine Wilson

After women were allowed to be senate in Canada many demanded one of the famous five but King appointed a fellow liberal named Carine Wilson in 1930

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Winnipeg General Strike

Massive strike by workers in Winnipeg in 1919, 2000 workers went on strike demanding higher wages, shorter hours, the metal trades council also wanted to be recognized as a union with the right to bargain collectively for its workers within three days over 30 000 workers were on strike

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Bloody Saturday

Saturday June 21st a march was led by the workers, during the march they were stopped by the mounties who were armed with club and pistols, two people were shot, 30 were injured, strike was called off 1 year later by the Strike committee

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One Big Strike

In 1919 delegates from most union locals in Western Canda met and proclaimed support for the Bolshevik (Russian communist), they decided to conduct a referendum and form a Revolutionary Industrial Union (The One Big Union), thousands of workers joined it, in 1920 OBU had close to 50 000 members the importance of this was it created power, fear and the ability to negotiate

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Gov't Response to One Big Union

The international craft union movement with the help of the government fought back and split the One Big Union up over policies and tactics in 1923 it was reduced to 5 000 members, the government used propaganda to convince people not to join by saying the OBU is Bolshevism plain and simple.

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Significance of Winnipeg Strike

In short term the Winnipeg Strike did not achieve gains for workers, although it did spark unionism and activism, it took 3 decades after the strike for employers to recognize Canadian workers unions and grant collective bargaining rights

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Political Change after WW1

Borden resigned due to poor health and names Arthur Meighan his successor, liberal leader Mackenzie King opposed him on everything and constantly argued with him

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1920s and Change

After the war Canada was hit with recession and Meighan could not garner enought support to maintain power, he was seen as crushing the Winnipeg General Strike which aided in passing the War Measures Act and forcing conscription on Canadians, King is elected in 1920 by a landslide

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William Lyon Mackenzie King

Will be Canadas Prime Minister for 22 of the next 25 years, he is a liberal centrallist which means he is looking to find compromises between conservative and liberal ideologies, he is a master negotiator and lawyer but was very brash and hardheaded at times

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Why was prohibition created?

Prohibition was created to solve social problems but instead it created a new set of problems

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When was prohibition introduced and what is it?

Prohibition was introduced in 1918 by the federal government, it was law banning the production, importing, exporting and transportation of alcohol

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Who led the Prohibition movement?

The prohibition movement was led by the Womens Suffrage Movement and the Womens Christian Temperance Movement led by Nellie McClung

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Canada vs USA in Prohibition

Unlike USA each province introduced prohibition at different times, they were called Provincial Temperance Acts, The US passed the 18th amendment which made prohibition a Constitutional Law

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How to get booze?

Many found ways to make alcohol illegally, one way was to make it at home, this was called moonshine or "Bath Tub Booze", this was very dangerous because it would explode or made people blind

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Sleemans and Canadian Club

Many Canadians became famous and rich from bootleg booze, two of them are Sleemans Beer and Canadian Club Whiskey, both these companies made their name during prohibition

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Doctors New Medicine

Canadian doctors were allowed to prescribe alcohol as medicine, these doctors made quite a bit of money

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Canadian Border and Prohibition

Americans realized Canada was still wet, many came across the border to buy liquor then bring it back to the USA, the attraction drew American mobsters, they brought gang warfare, murder, corruption of police, judges etc.

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Where the mobsters went?

During prohibitoon mobsters went to Canadian cities to set up production sites, we estimate 1 million dollars of liquor crossed from Windsor to Detroit each month, some famous cities were Windsor, Guelph and Hamilton

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Rocco Perri (Canadas Bootlegger)

Italian born crime figure in Hamilton, known as the king of bootleggers or Canadas Al Capone, he was iinterned in camp in WW2 as he was italian born, he did not view himself as criminal, believing that prohibition was a law people did not want

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Bright Side of Prohibition

Crime rate dropped, arrests for drunkenness decrease, domestic violence decreased, workers took pay home instead of the tavern, industrial efficiency improved, fewer work days missed

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Legacy of Prohibiton

Crime flourished in major cities, cocktails emerged (people didn't like the flavour of bootleg booze), speakeasies were formed, men and women socializing was normalized, places like LCBO were developed to regulate alcohol sales

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When did prohibiton end in Canada, PEI and US?

Canada 1927, PEI 1948, US 1933

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Fads in the 1920s

To escape horrors fads (trends) were formed, heavily influenced by the US, some fads include: crossword puzzles, kissing contests, dance contests, races, and marathons

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The Radio in the 1920s

Largest form of entertainment, great communication invention, people listened to news, weather, stores and sports, most broadcasts came from the US., under PM Bennett the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission was established (now CBC)

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Frank Willis in 1920

in 1935 he pioneered a new kind of news reporting, a mine collapsed in Nova Scotia trapping 3 men, he persuaded the CRBC to run live reports from the site, worlds first live 24 hour news event, over 100 million people tuned in to listen across North America and Europe

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Entertainment in the 1920s

movies throughout the 1920s was really popular, many silent films were produced, in 1927 "the talkies" came out, Canada didn't make many movies but produced several stars such as Mary Pickford

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The Charleston

a dance name for the harbor city of charleston, dance was popular, fast, and wild which caught the eye of the youth

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Canadian Culture (Group of Seven)

A growing sense of Canadian identity emerged after WW1, the group of seven was a group of seven Canadians who focused their art on Canadian themes, they used strong colours to show how the landscape affected them

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Emily Carr

ground breaking Canadian artist, unique style of painting which was not appreciated at the time, she became recognized for her paintings later in life both nationally and internationally

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Automobile Industry

Henry Ford dreamed of a car everyone could dribe, the assembly line changed everything, allowed factories to produce cars every 3 minutes, made car ownership accessible the significance is that it created a new industry (day trips, gas stations, repair shops), this was Canada's 2nd largest manufacturer

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Insulin in the 1920s

developed by Fredrick Banting who won nobel prize for medicine and Charles Best, this is a medication to treat diabetics

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Toaster Story (Great Depression)

Companies mass produced toasters until everyone had a toaster, many lost their jobs which meant they couldn't purchase anything so other businesses layed off workers, this became a domino effect and millions lost jobs

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Overproduction and Expansions effect on the Great Depression

many companies expanded their factories and produced high amounts of resources (surplus), not as many goods were purchased compared to produced as wages were extremely low, owners were nervous so they reduced production and wages and layoffs began

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Staple Products effect on the Great Depression

As long as staples (wheat, fish, minerals) were in demand Canada would prosper, surplus created competition, decrease in production, wheat crops decreased due to drought (dirty 30s), created chain reaction

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The Dust Bowl effect on the Great Depression

Years of drought lasted in the early 30s in the prairies, got worse due to overcultivation and poor land management, top soil became dry and carried away in Black Blizzards

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Canada's dependence on the U.S. (Great Depression)

Canada and the US were trading partners, which the depression hit both were greatly affected, international trade dropped by 50%

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High tariffs and the great depression

These discourage trade between nations because it increases the cost of imports, raised consumer prices

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Easy Credit and the Great Depression

Many companies and consumers borrowed money to pay for large machinery (expansion), by 1929 buying by credit was very common, many people fell into debt and the depression made people lose everything

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The Stock Market and the great depression

Many saw the stock market as an easy way to get rich quick, many bought on margin (buy stock on credit and when stock went up they would sell it and pay off the creditors and pocket profits), in october of 1929 the stocks dropped and many panicked and began to sell

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The Stock Market Crash and the great depression

Prices fell lower as stock was dumped, value of stock dropped by more than 50%, many lost millions, this crash is known as Black Tuesday

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The Chanak Affair

Dispute against Turkish control over Chanak (a neutral zone), Britain prepares for war and turns to the Dominion (Canada included ) for help, Canada refuses to be "called", and agrees to go if it is moved properly through Canadian Parliment, First step in removing British control from Canada

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The Halibut Treaty

A 1923 treaty between Canada and the U.S. to protect halibut along the Pacific Coast; the first treaty negotiated and signed independently by the Canadian government, set the precedent that Canada has the right to take independent diplomatic action

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The King-Byng Crisis

A situation that occurred in 1926 when Governor General Byng refused Prime Minister King's request to dissolve Parliament and call an election, Meighan was asked to be the new government, his government was defeated and Byng had no choice but to appoint King, Canadians believed Byng undermined Canadian autonomy, this debate refined Canada and Britains relationship

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The Statute of Westminster

the law that changed the British Empire into the British Commonwealth; all commonwealth countries to be considered equal in status with Britain and able to make their own laws, involved the Balfour report which states Britain can no longer make decisions for Canada, statute is known as "Canadas declaraction of Independence"

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The Fourteen Points

A plan to ensure the Great War would be the "war to end all wars", propsal for lasting peace, open diplomacy, end secret deal between governments, reduce armaments whilst ensuring security, "general association of nations", "Politcal independence and territorial integrity"

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Canada and the League of Nations

Three tools could be used when was threatned: ask countires to negotiate a peaceful solution, impose economic sanctions, use military force, small countires should decide if they want to be involved in military actions, marked first time Canada took independent multilateral action (became a hallmark over the next century)

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What legacy did the General Strike leave behind?

Bitterness and Controversy

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The Citizens Committee declared the strike a revolutionary conspiracy led by who?

A small group of alien scum.

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<p>Analyze</p>
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<p>Analyze</p>

Analyze

This cartoon is about women suffrage and fighting for the right to vote. She is struggling to close her gap on her corset. Women were not considered person and were constantly fight for political right and the right to vote. This caption states "the last few buttons are always the hardest" as they say approval of womens suffrage is the hard to get. The 34, 35, and 36 are symbols of the last three states needed to make women suffrage an ammendment.

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Why was the 1920s nicknamed the roaring 20s?

The 1920s were nickname the roaring 20s because the economy was booming. People had more money and we're buying more things which boosted the economy

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Describe the change in Canadas main trade partner in the 20s

Before the 20s Canada's main trade partner was Britain but this changed during the 20s in Canada started relying more on the US as a main trading partner

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Causes of the Great Depression

  1. Overproduction and overexpansion

  2. Canada's dependence on a few primary resources (staple products)

  3. Canada's dependence on the USA

  4. High tariffs choked off international trade

  5. Too much credit buying

  6. Too much credit buying stocks

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What events contributed to Canada's growing Autonomy?

King-Byng Crisis, Chanak Affair, Halibut Treaty, The Statute of Westminster, The Fourteen Points, Canada and the League of Nations

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Private Relief

churches and charitable organizations provide food through soup kitchens, this was not enough

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The Dole

municipalities provide welfare called the dole, recieving this was a disgrace, many believed you were lazy and if you tried hard enough you could find a job, sometimes this was given through vouchers for the dollar amount of a specific item

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Requirements to Recieve the Dole

You must be living in that municipality for at least 6 months and prove that you have no material possessions

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Depressions effect on men

The depression was very hard on young, single men, many employers assumed that older, married men needed jobs more to support their families, employers assumed families would take care of the young, single men, families couldn't support these men, men started travelling from city to city to look for work (riding the rods (rails))

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Relief Camps

As the number of young, unemployed men (drifters) increased, authorities feared they may turn violent with anger, the government took action to avoid an uprising, they set up relief camps

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Where were relief camps set up and who ran these camps?

Relief camps were set up in remote areas of Canada, it was ran by the department of national defence, this was so that people wouldn't see the countries issues and the drifters were off the streets and out of trouble

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What did men do in the relief camps and what did they recieve in return?

Men worked 8 hours a day, 6 days a week building roads, digging ditches and planting trees in return they recieved a bed, food, clothing, and 20 cents per day

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Why were the men unhappy in the relief camps?

most men were unhappy and depressed, they were living in a prison/army camp, they were not allowed to vote, conditions were terrible, they had nothing to do in spare time, and they were not allowed to leave

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Why were the men in the relief camps not allowed to vote?

men in the relief camps were not allowed to vote as they would vote against the current government, they had great reason to as they were living in poor conditions

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