BIOL: chapter 1 (the study of life)

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derived from Latin and means “to know”

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derived from Latin and means “to know”

The word Science

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Two main types of scientific inquiry:

discovery science and hypothesis-based science

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discovery science and hypothesis-based science

Also known as qualitative science and quantitative science

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logic used in descriptive science

Inductive reasoning

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logic used in hypothesis-based science

Deductive reasoning

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observations to arrive at general conclusion

Inductive reasoning

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all living organisms are composed of cells -- all life observed exhibits cellular organization

Inductive reasoning

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general principles to predict specific result

Deductive reasoning

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All dogs are mammals. All mammals have kidneys. Therefore all dogs have kidneys.

Deductive reasoning

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Data

recorded observations or items of information

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descriptions rather than measurements (appearance, behavior, etc...)

Qualitative

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recorded measurements, which are sometimes organized into tables and graphs

Quantitative

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A hypothesis must be

testable

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Experiments must have

controls

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“pure” science seeks to expand knowledge regardless of the short-term application

Basic science

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goal of technology is to

apply scientific knowledge for some specific purpose

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Biology is marked by “,” while technology is marked by “

discoveries;inventions

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scientific law describes

a correlation between measured variables. Sometimes expressed as a mathematical equation.

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scientific theory offers an explanation of

natural phenomena. The theory of evolution through natural selection. The theory of relativity. Germ theory.

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Reviewed by experts in the same research area, who judge whether or not the work is original, significant, logical, and thorough.

Primary or peer-reviewed literature

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Newspapers, books, review articles

Secondary literature

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Properties of Life

  1. Order

  2. Response to environment

  3. Reproduction

  4. Regulation/homeostasis

  5. Energy Processing

  6. Evolutionary Adaption

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Organisms interact with their environments, exchanging matter and energy

Order/Organization:

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two major processes:

– Cycling of nutrients – Energy transfer and transformation: flow of energy from sunlight to producers to consumers

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Organisms living on Earth are modified descendents of

common ancestors

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Fossils and other evidence document the evolution of life on Earth over

billions of years

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Natural selection is evident in adaptations of

organisms to their environment

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Bat wings are an example of

adaptation

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Bacteria and Archaea are _; plants, animals, fungi, and all other forms of life are __

prokaryotic;eukaryotic

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Domain Bacteria and domain Archaea

comprise the prokaryotes

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Domain Eukarya includes three multicellular kingdoms:

Plantae, Fungi, Animalia

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Other eukaryots were formerly grouped into a kingdom called Protista –

now grouped into many separate kingdoms

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