Fundamentals of COMM 105A: Final Exam Review

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What is communication?

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What is communication?

The process of creating meaning through symbolic interaction

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What are the three characteristics of communication?

Communication is a process, communication is relational, and communication is symbolic

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What are symbols?

An arbitrary sign used to represent a thing, person, idea, or event in ways that make communication possible.

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Linear communication model(NOT EFFECTIVE)

a characterization of communication as a one-way event in which a message flows from sender to receiver.

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Transactional communication model

a characterization of communication as the simultaneous sending and receiving of messages in an ongoing process that involves feedback and includes unintentional messages.

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Intrapersonal communication

communication that occurs with one's self

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Dyadic/Interpersonal Communication

two-person communication

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Small-group communication

communication within a group of a size such that every member can participate actively with the other members.

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Organizational communication (Nonprofit agency/business)

interaction among members of a relatively large, permanent structure in order to pursue shared goals

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Public communication(Unequal amount of speaking/limited verbal feedback)

communication that occurs when a group is too large for everyone to contribute.

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Mass communication

the transmission of messages that are too large

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Communication competence

the ability to achieve one's goals through communication and, ideally, maintain healthy relationships.

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Competence is Situational

Because competent behavior varies so much from one situation and person to another, it's a mistake to think people are either great communicators or they aren't.

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Competent Communicators are Empathic

Developing an effective message when you understand the other person's point of view.

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Competence can be learned

Communication is learnable by a systematic education with little training

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Competence Requires hard work

Knowing how to communicate effectively

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Competence is relational.

Something we do with others rather than to them

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Competent Communicators are committed

People who are emotionally committed to a relationship are more likely than others to talk about difficult subjects and to share personal information about themselves.

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Mediated communication

more leaner than face-to-face

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Leanness (ex: of mediated communication)

the lack of nonverbal cues to clarify a message

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Hyperpersonal communication(ex: of mediated communication)

the phenomenon in which digital interaction creates deeper relationships than arise through face-to-face communication.

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Asynchronous communication(ex: of mediated communication)

communication that occurs when there's a lag between the creation and reception of a message.

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Face-to-face communication

abounds nonverbal cues that hint at what others mean and feel

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Richness(ex: face-to-face communication)

the degree to which nonverbal cues can clarify a verbal message

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Synchronous communication (ex: face-to-face communication)

Communication occurs in real time

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Identify barriers to communication

Language limits

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Social Media

dynamic websites and applications that enable individual users to create and share content or to participate in person networking

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uses of social media

informational, personal relationships, personal identity, and entertainment

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Uses and Gratifications Theory

"What does media do to people?"

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Functions and benefits of Social Media

opportunities to connect, sustaining and enriching relationships, social support, and advocacy and fundraising

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Barriers and Drawbacks of Social Media

superficial relationships, social isolation, relational deterioration, mental health issues, deception, and stalking and harassment

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What is self-concept?

a set of largely stable perceptions individuals have of themselves

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What is self-esteem?

the part of the self-concept that involves evaluations of self-worth.

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How is our sense of self developed?

From other people's opinions and our own life experiences

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Steps of Perception

  1. Selection: information to focus your attention on.

  2. Organization: the information into an understandable pattern, such as words, phrases, ideas, or images

  3. Interpretation: the pattern's meaning

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What are narratives?

the stories people create to help make sense of the world.

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What is stereotyping?

a widely held but oversimplified or inaccurate idea tied to social categorization.

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What are scripts?

habitual behaviors people have developed over time.

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How does communication tie into identity management?

Identity management is a communication strategy meant to influence how others view us.

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How does identity management relate to social media?

People use social media as a way to make themselves believe that everything is perfect when, in reality, it's not.

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Characteristics of identity management

  • People have multiple identities

  • Identity management is collaborative -Identity management can be conscious or unconscious

  • People differ in their degree of identity management

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What is culture?

the language, values, beliefs, traditions, and customs people share and learn.

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What is coculture?

a group that is part of an encompassing culture. (Ex: age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, physical challenges, language, religion, and activity.)

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Describe intergroup communication.

an interaction between members of different cocultures and cultures can be limited or hurtful

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What is salience and why is it important?

How much weight people attach to a particular phenomenon or characteristic. It's what becomes important at a specific moment.

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What does "Cultural differences are generalizations" mean?

It means the distinct differences of a culture don't apply to everyone in a specific culture.

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What is individualistic culture and what is an example?

a culture in which members focus on the value and welfare of individual members more than on the group as a whole. (Example: values on itself or someone)

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What is collectivistic culture and what is an example?

a culture in which members focus more on the welfare of the group as a whole than on individual identity. (Example: values in a group)

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What is high-context culture and what is an example?

a culture that relies heavily on subtle, often nonverbal cues to maintain social harmony, (Example: paying attention to the rules)

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What is low-context culture and what is an example?

a culture that uses language primarily to express thoughts, feelings, and ideas as directly as possible. (Example: low concern about the rules)

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What is uncertainty avoidance?

the cultural tendency to seek stability and to honor tradition instead of welcoming risk, uncertainty, and change.

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What is power distance?

The degree to which members of a group are willing to accept a difference in power and status.

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What is race?

a social construct to describe a group of people who share physical and cultural traits and potentially a common ancestry.

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What is ethnicity?

a social construct that refers to the degree to which a person identifies with a particular group, usually on the basis of nationality, culture, religion, or some other unifying perspective.

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How does LGBTQ+ represent a coculture?

LGBTQ+ represents coculture as it is often found inside a larger cultural group.

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What factors help shape culture?

Race and ethnicity, regional differences, gender identity, sexual orientation, religion, political viewpoints, ability and disability, age and generation, and socioeconomic status.

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What is ethnocentrism?

the attitude that one's own culture is better than other cultures.

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What is prejudice?

an unfairly biased and intolerant attitude towards others who belong to an out-group.

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What is hegemony?

the dominance of one culture over another.

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How can you increase your intercultural communication competence?

increased contact, tolerance for ambiguity, open-mindedness, and knowledge and skill.

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What is passive observation?

Not interacting with people of other cultures or cocultures

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What are active strategies?

interacting first-hand with people for other cultures or cocultures

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What does "language is symbolic" mean?

How certain members communicate

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What is Ogden and Richard's Triangle of Meaning?

a model of communication that indicates the relationship between a thought, a symbol, and a reference. (the indirect relationship between the symbol, and referent).

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What are the rules by which language is governed?

-Phonological rules(how words are supposed to sound) -Syntactic rules( order of how words must go)

  • Semantic rules(the meaning of words used) -Pragmatic rules(how we use communication to be effective)

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Why are names important?

-shapes the way others think of us -it's the way we view ourselves -it's how we act

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What is linguistic relativism?

the language that people speak shapes the way we view the world.

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How are our values, attitudes, and beliefs reflected in language?

feelings of control, attraction, commitment, and responsibility.

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Example of powerless language

"Uh, can I have a minute of your time?"

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How can language show show responsibility?

It can reveal a speaker's willingness to accept responsibility.

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How can language create trouble?

Equivocal words: words that have more than one dictionary definition. Relative words: terms that gain their meaning by comparison. Slang: language used by members in a particular group. Jargon: words used within similar backgrounds. Euphemism: indirect words substituted for a direct but sometimes less pleasant.

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How do men and women differ in their communication?

Women: talk about relationship issues, conversation on feelings, personal issues, and emotions, more emotionally expressive, and speak more. Men: talk about sports, emphasize fun communication, express emotions with actions, and higher testosterone means more competition.

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What does the research say?

Men are willing to: offer advice when a friend is troubled; distract a distraught friend with an activity or humor; think of communication as a game-a fun competition. Women are willing to: show empathy; share a similar experience; encourage a friend to keep talking and exploring his or her feelings; and treat communication as a means of connecting with others emotionally.

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What are the 3 misconceptions about listening?

  1. Hearing and listening are the same thing: hearing is automatic, and listening requires conscious effort and skill.

  2. Listening is a natural process: not many people know how to do it right, most people aren't good listeners, but they think they are.

  3. All listeners receive the same message: when two or more people listen to a speaker, we tend to assume that they all hear and understand the same message when we don't.

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What is the definition of hearing?

the process wherein sound waves strike the eardrum and cause vibrations that are transmitted to the brain.

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What is the definition of listening?

the process wherein the brain recognizes sounds and gives them meaning.

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What is listening fidelity and why is it important in the listening process?

the degree of congruence between what a listener understands and what the message sender was attempting to communicate. It's important because it falls under the rules of language being governed and how listening is not an easy process as we think.

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What are poor and faulty listening habits?

Pretending to listen, tuning in and out, being defensive, avoiding the issue, missing the underlying point, being self-centered, and assuming that talking is more impressive than listening.

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What are the four types of listening?

Insulated listening: a style in which the receiver ignores undesirable. Insensitive listening: the failure to recognize the thoughts or feelings that are not directly expressed by a speaker and instead accept the speaker's words at face value. Relational listening: a listening style that is driven primarily by the desire to build emotional closeness with the speaker. Supportive listening: the reception approach to use when others seek help for personal dilemmas.

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What is face-saving?

attempts to establish or maintain one's self-image in response to a threat.

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How does listening influence social support?

It can make listeners seem more friendly, honest, understanding, and encouraging.

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What is nonverbal communication?

messages expressed without words, as through body movements, facial expressions, eye contact, tone of voice, and so on.

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Is nonverbal communication universal?

No, it is not.

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What is proxemics?

the study of how people and animals use space.

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What function does nonverbal communication serve?

Nonverbal communication is unavoidable, ambiguous, conveys emotion, influences identity, and influences relationships.

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Why is space considered a form of nonverbal communication?

It is because of the distance we put between ourselves and the territory we consider our own.

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How do culture and gender influence nonverbal communication?

Culture is influenced by the use of space, eye contact, nonverbal focus, paralanguage, and affect displays. Gender is influenced by media influences and social structures.

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How can you increase competence in nonverbal communication?

Aiming for the right amount of eye contact, monitor your tone of voice, and observe yourself

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What is interpersonal communication?

Two-way interactions between people who are part of a close and irreplaceable relationship in which they treat each other as unique individuals.

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Explain the developmental model described by Knapp?

5 stages of intimacy development (coming together) and five stages in which people distance themselves from each other (coming apart). These stages include initiating, experimenting, intensifying, integrating, bonding, differentiating, circumscribing, stagnating, avoiding, and terminating.

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Explain the Johari window.

the model that describes the relationship between self-disclosure and self-awareness. The first quadrant is the open area(information about you both that both you and your relational partner are aware of). The second quadrant is the blind area( information you are unaware of but others know). The third quadrant is the hidden area( information that you know but aren't willing to reveal to others). The fourth quadrant is unknown( to both of you).

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How do we choose relational partners?

They have a lot in common, they balance each other, they like and appreciate each other, they admire each other, they open up to each other, they interact frequently, and the relationship is rewarding.

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Differentiate between various content and relational messages?

Content message: a message that communicates information about the subject being discussed. Relational message: a message that expresses the social relationship between two or more people.

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What is the dialectical perspective of interpersonal relationships?

Connection("We had different needs") vs. Autonomy ( "He/She won't give me any space") Predictability(sucking out of relationship) vs. Novelty("I don't know whop you are anymore") Openness("What's on your mind?") vs. Privacy ("Don't try to read my mind!")

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Do opposites attract?

Yes, but not always

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Differentiate between assertive and nonassertive communication.

Assertion is people handling conflicts by expressing their needs, thoughts, and feelings clearly and inviting others to do the same. Nonassertion is the inability or unwillingness to express one's thoughts or feelings.

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Identify the methods of conflict resolution?

-Nonassertiveness -Indirect communication -Passive Aggression -Direct Aggression Assertiveness

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How can you confirm a message for a communication partner?

-Showing recognition

  • Acknowledging the other person's thoughts and feelings

  • Show that you agree

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Explain Gibb's checklist.

He demonstrates that there are eight ways to engage in relationship friendly conflict management.

  • Avoid judgment statements( like don't make you statements because they are likely to cause defensiveness and escalate conflict).

  • Use "I" language( focus on a specific behavior and the speaker's thoughts and feelings about it).

  • Be honest. (think about what you want to say, and plan the wording of your message carefully so that you can express yourself clearly).

  • Show empathy(empathic messages show that you accept another person's feelings and can put yourself in their place). -Treat others as your equal(demonstrate that you are willing to listen to others and consider their needs and goals, not just your own).

  • Avoid attempts to control or manipulate others( be careful not to impose your preferences without regard for other people's needs or interests).

  • Don't be a know-it-all (Acknowledge that you don't have a lock on the truth).

  • Focus on mutually beneficial problem solving( you can help build a healthy relational climate by being respectful, being a good listener, and seeking solutions that satisfy both your needs and the other person's).

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What is a group? Be able to give/identify examples?

A group is a limited number of interdependent people who interact with one another over time to pursue shared goals.

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