Biology 181 Test 3-Phylogeny and Biodiversity

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1

John Ray

the man who developed a modern definition of the word "species"

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Carl Linnaeus

"Father of Taxonomy"; established his classification of living things; famous for animal naming system of binomial nomenclature

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Species Name

Genus + epithet(species)

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Higher Taxonomic Names

Canidae, Reptilia, Homonidae, etc

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Taxonomic Classification Levels

Domain->Kingdom->Phylum->Class->Order->Family->Genus->Species

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Taxonomy

How living things are classified

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Taxon

Group of any rank, such as a species, family, or class

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Taxa

Ideally, monophyletic (all the descendants from a common ancestor)

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Phylogeny

Study of evolutionary history and relationships of a species or group of species.

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Monophyletic

A taxon that consists of a most recent common ancestor and all its descendants

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Paraphyletic

A taxon that consists of a most recent common ancestor and some of its descendants

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Polyphyletic

A taxon that consists of unrelated organisms who are from a different recent common ancestor. This group lacks a most recent common ancestor

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Synapomorphy

shared derived character

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Data used to make phylogenetic trees

-Fossil Records -Morphology -Physiology -Behavior -Embryological development -DNA/RNA sequences

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Cladistics

Reconstructs phylogenetic tress by considering various evolutionary pathways

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Clade

Group of evolutionary ancestors and descendants of a common ancestor

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Sister Clades

Clades that share an immediate common ancestor; two clades that are each other's closest relatives

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Cladogram

Diagram showing evolutionary relationships among organisms

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phylogenetic tree

diagram showing evolutionary relationships of organisms with a common ancestor; resembles a tree

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Homology

traits inherited by two different organisms from a common ancestor

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Ancestral Trait

in ancestor of group; may be retained or changed in descendants

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Derived Traits

newly evolved features that do not appear in the common ancestors

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Homoplasies

features shared between species that were not inherited from a common ancestor

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Principle of Parsimony

Preferred explanation of observed data is the simplest explanation

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Characteristics used to Classify Organisms

-Life Cycles -Extraembryonic Membranes -Excretory Product -Temperature Regulation -Skull Types

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Haploid

One set of chromosomes (n)

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Diploid

Two sets of chromosomes (2n)

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Gametes

Sex cells (haploid)

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Gametophyte

Gamete-producing structure

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Meiosis

cell division process; yields haploid gamete or spores

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Mitosis

cell division process; yields identical cells

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Spore

A tiny cell that is able to grow into a new organism

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Sporophyte

The stage in the life cycle of a plant in which the plant produces spores.

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Alternation of Generations

the alternation between the haploid gametophyte and the diploid sporophyte in a plant's life cycle

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Fish & Amphibian Eggs

Eggs laid in water, no special water-filled enclosure (non-amniotes)

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Reptile & Bird Eggs

Shelled Egg

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Mammal Eggs

Marsupial and placental (eutherian) uterus

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Eutherian

Placental mammal

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Amniotes

their embryos are protected by extraembryonic membranes

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Amnion

Protects embryo in a sac filled with amniotic fluid

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Yolk Sac

Contains yolk; sole source of food until hatching

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Allantois

Stores metabolic wastes of the embryo

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Chorion

lines inner surface of shell & participates in the gas exchange between embryo and outside air

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Fish Excretory Product

Ammonia

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Mammal, Amphibian, & Shark Excretory Product

Urea

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Birds, Insects, & Many Reptiles Excretory Product

Uric Acid

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Endotherms

Warm-blooded animals; get heat from metabolic activities within the body

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Ectotherms

Cold-blooded animals; get heat from the external environment

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Homeotherms

Keep body temperature constant

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Heterotherms

Allow body temperature to fluctuate

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Synapsids

Mammals, one temporal fenestrae

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Sauropsids

anapsids and diapsids

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Anapsids

no temporal fenestrae (turtles)

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Diapsids

two temporal fenestrae

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Three Domain System

Domains Bacteria, Archae, and Eukarya.

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Eukaryotic Kingdoms

Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia

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Bacteria & Archaea

single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus; prokaryotes

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Prokaryote Reproduction

asexual binary fission

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Plasmids

Small circular DMA molecules within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently

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Animal Body Plans

-number of tissue types in embryos -type of body symmetry -degree of cephalization -presence or absence of fluid-filled cavity -the way early development proceeds

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Diploblasts

two germ layers: ectoderms and endoderms. Cnidaria & Ctenophora

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Triploblasts

three germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. Adult echinoderms

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Body Cavity

A fluid-containing space between the digestive tract and the body wall.

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Coelem

fluid-filled body cavity lined with mesoderm

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Aceolomates

organisms without a ceolem. Flatworms

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Pseudocoelomate

An animal whose body cavity is not completely lined by mesoderm

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Protostomes

mouth develops first, arthropods, mollusks, annelids

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Deuterostomes

anus develops first, Chordata phylum, echinoderms

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Phylum Chordata

vertebrates

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Mycelia fungi

compromised of hyphae, have cell walls mainly of chitin

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Fungi

Heterotrophs that acquire nutrients by absorption

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Decomposing Fungi

Absorb nutrients from nonliving organisms

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Parasite Fungi

Absorb nutrients from living host's cells

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Specialized Hyphae

modified for predation

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Haustoria

appendage or portion of a parasitic fungus that penetrates host's tissue and draws nutrients from it

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Mycorrihaze Fungi

Hyphae of certain fungi and roots of most seed plants that absorbs nutrients

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Chytridiomycota: Chytrids

Common in freshwater environments; Have enzymes that digest cellulose so they are important decomposers of plant tissue; can live in the guts of herbivores to help digest their food; have a flagellated stage called a zoospore that produces and holds spores

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Zygomycota: Zygote Fungi

Soil dwellers (lakes and wet soils); Comprise the common bread molds and fruit rots; are decomposers, parasites, and mutualists; form zygospores that are resistant to harsh conditions; can form mycorrhizal associations

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Glomeromycota: Mycorrhizal fungi

Mycorrhizal fungi; 90% of plants have relationships with these fungi and need them to exist: increase surface area and protecting the roots

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Asomycota: Sac Fungi

Sac fungi; found in diverse habitats; 70% of all fungi belong to this group; spores are in sacs called asci; includes yeast, truffles, morels, and penicillin; can become diseases

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Basidiomycota: Club Fungi

Typical mushroom; includes shelf/bracket fungi, some molds, and rusts; named for basidia that are club-like cells where spores form; have mycorrhizal associations and lichens; some are mutualistic with insects

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Nonvascular Plants

no vascular tissue to conduct water or provide support

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Bryophytes

A moss, liverwort, or hornwort

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Seedless Plants

Have vascular tissue but do not make seeds

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Pteridophytes

Lycophytes, Whisk Ferns, Horsetails, Ferns

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Seed Plants

Have vascular tissue and make seeds

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Gymnosperms

cycads, ginkos, conifer

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Angiosperms

flowering plants

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Endosymbiosis

Unicellular organisms engulfed other cells which became organelles: chloroplasts, mitochondria

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Ingestive Feeding

eating live or dead organisms or scavenging loose bits of organic debris. Paramecium

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Absorptive Feeding

taking nutrients directly from the environment

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Paramecium

waves hair-like appendages called cilia to propel itself

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Amoeba

uses lobe-like pseudopodia to anchor itself to a solid surface and pull itself

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Euglena

Uses a whip-like tail called a flagellum to propel itself

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Symplesiomorphy

Ancestral character trait shared by two or more lineages in a clade

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plesiamorphy

Human hair is a _______

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Bacteria

Saprobes that display positive chemotaxis when near a favorable substrate. Spherical and reproduce/replicate quickly.

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