LAB PRACTICAL 1

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Define a hormone

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Tags and Description

Nursing

A&P II

191 Terms

1

Define a hormone

A chemical messenger that regulates specific body functions

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2

Define a target cell

A tissue cell that has a receptor protein on its plasma membrane or in its interior for a hormone to bind to

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3

Define a receptor

A protein that binds specifically with other molecules

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4
<p>Identify and name the major endocrine glands &amp; tissues of the human body</p>

Identify and name the major endocrine glands & tissues of the human body

  1. Hypothalamus

  2. Pituitary gland

  3. Thyroid gland

  4. Thymus

  5. Adrenal glands

  6. Pancreas

  7. Ovary

  8. Testes

  9. Pineal gland

  10. Parathyroid gland

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5

Name the hormone:

GH

Growth hormone

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6

Name the hormone:

TSH

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

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7

Name the hormone:

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

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8

Name the hormone:

FSH

Follicle-stimulating hormone

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9

Name the hormone:

LH

Luteinizing hormone

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10

Name the hormone:

PRL

Prolactin

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11

Name the hormone:

ADH

Antidiuretic hormone

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12

Name the hormone:

OT

Oxytocin

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13

Name the hormone:

CT

Calcitonin

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14

Name the hormone:

NE

Norepinephrine

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15

Name the hormone:

EPI

Epinephrine

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16

Name the hormone:

ICSH

Interstitial-cell stimulating hormone

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17

Name the hormone:

TH

Thyroid hormone

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18

Name the hormone:

PTH

Parathyroid hormone

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19

What hormone(s) do the anterior pituitary gland create & secrete?

  1. FSH

  2. LH

  3. ACTH

  4. PRL

  5. GH

  6. TSH

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20

What hormone(s) do the posterior pituitary gland secrete?

  1. ADH

  2. OT

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21

What hormone(s) do the hypothalamus gland create, but don’t secrete?

  1. ADH

  2. OT

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22

What hormone(s) do the hypothalamus gland create & secrete?

Releasing/Inhibiting hormones

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23

What hormone(s) do the pineal gland create & secrete?

Melatonin

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24

What hormone(s) do the thyroid gland create & secrete?

TH

  • T3 - Triiodothyronine

  • T4 - Thyroxine

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25

What hormone(s) do the thymus gland create & secrete?

Thymosin

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26

What hormone(s) do the adrenal medulla create & secrete?

  1. EPI

  2. NE

collectively know as adrenaline

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27

What hormone(s) do the adrenal cortex gland create & secrete?

  1. Zona glomerulosa - mineralocorticoids, primarily aldosterone

  2. Zona fasciculata - glucocorticoids, primarily cortisol

  3. Zona reticularis - gonadocorticoids, primarily androgens

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28

What hormone(s) do the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans gland create & secrete?

Glucagon

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29

What hormone(s) do the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans gland create & secrete?

Insulin

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30

What hormone(s) do the ovaries gland create & secrete?

  1. Estrogen

  2. Progesterone

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31

What hormone(s) do the testes gland create & secrete?

Testosterone

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32

What hormone(s) do the heart create & secrete?

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

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33

What hormone(s) do the kidneys create & secrete?

  1. Renin

  2. Erythropoietin

  3. Calcitrol

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34

What is the function of FSH?

Causes the secretion of estrogen (regulates menstrual cycle) in females & causes sperm production in males

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35

What is the function of LH?

Triggers ovulation in females, causes the endocrine cells of the testis to produce testosterone in males

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36

What is the function of ACTH?

stimulates the production of adrenal glucocorticoids (cortisol)

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37

What is the function of PRL?

Stimulates milk production in females

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38

What is the function GH?

Stimulates growth of all body tissues, especially skeletal muscle & bone; mobilizes fat

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39

What is the function of TSH?

Stimulates thyroid hormone production

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40

What is the function of ADH?

Stimulates kidneys to reabsorb water

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41

What is the function of OT?

Stimulates contraction of the uterus during childbirth and the ejection milk after delivery

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42

What is the function of melatonin?

Helps set sleep-wake cycle

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43

What is the function of TH?

Accelerates cellular metabolic rate; involved in glucose oxidation (breakdown of glucose into ATP & NADH)

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44

What is the function calcitonin?

Regulates calcium by lowering absorption (released in response to high calcium levels)

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45

What is the function of thymosin?

Involved in t-cell development & important for immune response

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46

What is the function of EPI?

Adrenaline; chief adrenal medulla hormone

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47

What is the function of NE?

Adrenaline; 20-25% of medulla secretion

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48

What is the function of cortisol?

Assists the body to resist stress; depresses inflammatory & immune response; promotes gluconeogenesis (formation of glucose); mobilizes fat for energy; stimulates protein catabolism (break down)

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49

What is the function of aldosterone?

Increase levels of Na+ & decrease levels of K+; blood volume and pressure rise

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50

What is the function of androgens?

Controls male secondary sex characteristics

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51

What is the function of glucagon?

Raises glucose level of blood

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52

What is the function of insulin?

Decreases glucose level of blood

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53

What is the function of estrogen?

Stimulates female secondary sex hormones

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54

What is the function of testosterone?

Necessary for normal sperm production

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55

What is the function of ANP?

Decreases Na+ in blood, thereby reducing blood volume/pressure

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56

What is the function of EPO?

Signals to red bone marrow to increase RBC produces

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57
<p>Name glands A &amp; B</p>

Name glands A & B

A: Parathyroid gland

B: Thyroid gland

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58
<p>Name glands A &amp; B</p>

Name glands A & B

A: Adrenal cortex

B: Adrenal medulla

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59
<p>Name glands A &amp; B</p>

Name glands A & B

A: A. pituitary

B: P. pituitary

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60
<p>Identify anatomical structures of the hypothalamus &amp; pituitary gland</p>

Identify anatomical structures of the hypothalamus & pituitary gland

  1. Paraventricular nucleus

  2. Hypothalamic neuron

  3. Hypothalamus

  4. Posterior lobe

  5. Anterior lobe

  6. Infundibulum

  7. Supraoptic nucleus

  8. Hypophyseal portal system

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61

Describe the anatomical relationship between the hypothalamus and a. pituitary gland

The anterior lobe, composed of epithelial tissue, is connected to the hypothalamus vascularly, via the hypophyseal portal system. Releasing/inhibiting hormones are secreted by the hypothalamus and circulate to the a. pituitary via the portal system.

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62

Describe the anatomical relationship between the hypothalamus and p. pituitary gland

The posterior gland is connected to the hypothalamus via the infundibulum and is neural/hypothalamic tissue that grows downward, maintaining a neural connection via the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract.

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63

Name the two major components of blood and state their average percentages in whole blood

Erythrocytes - 45%

Plasma - 55%

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64

Describe the composition and functional importance of plasma

  • Water – 90%, acts as the dissolving solvent of blood & absorbs heat

  • Electrolytes – most abundant solute, helps maintain normal blood pH

  • Plasma proteins- 8%, help maintain water balance in blood & tissues

  • Other substances (nutrients, gases, waste) are transported through the plasma

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65

Describe RBCs, list the number of cells/mm3; and function.

  • Biconcave, anucleate disc

  • 4-6 million

  • Transports oxygen and CO2

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66

Describe WBCs and list the number of cells/mm3

  • Spherical, nucleate cells

  • 4,800-10,800

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67

Describe neutrophils, list the number of cells/mm3; and function.

  • Multilobed nucleus; inconspicuous cytoplasmic granules

  • 3000-7000

  • Phagocytize bacteria

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68

Describe eosinophils, list the number of cells/mm3; and function.

  • Bilobed nucleus; red cytoplasmic granules

  • 100-400

  • Kill parasitic worms; complex role in allergies/asthma

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69

Describe basophils, list the number of cells/mm3; and function.

  • Bilobed nucleus; large purplish-black cytoplasmic granules

  • 20-50

  • Releases histamine, a mediator of inflammation; contains heparin, an anticoagulant

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70

Describe lymphocytes, list the number of cells/mm3; and function.

  • Spherical or indented nucleus; pale blue cytoplasm

  • 1500-3000

  • Mount immune response by direct cell attack or via antibodies (t-cells & b-cells)

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71

Describe monocytes, list the number of cells/mm3; and function.

  • U-shaped nucleus; gray-blue cytoplasm

  • 100-700

  • Phagocytosis; develop into macrophages in the tissues

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72

Describe thrombocytes, list the number of cells/mm3; and function.

  • Discoid cytoplasmic fragments containing granules; stain deep purple

  • 150,000-400,000

  • Blood clotting; seals small tears in blood vessels

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73
<p>Identify the blood cell at the tip of the pointer:</p>

Identify the blood cell at the tip of the pointer:

Monocyte

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74
<p>Identify the blood cell at the tip of the pointer:</p>

Identify the blood cell at the tip of the pointer:

Platelets

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75
<p>Identify the blood cell at the tip of the pointer:</p>

Identify the blood cell at the tip of the pointer:

Eosinophil

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76
<p>Identify the blood cell at the tip of the pointer:</p>

Identify the blood cell at the tip of the pointer:

Lymphocyte

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77
<p>Identify the blood cell at the tip of the pointer:</p>

Identify the blood cell at the tip of the pointer:

Neutrophil

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78
<p>Identify the blood cell at the tip of the pointer:</p>

Identify the blood cell at the tip of the pointer:

Basophil

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79
<p>Identify the blood cell at the tip of the pointer:</p>

Identify the blood cell at the tip of the pointer:

Erythrocytes (RBCs)

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80

Define hematocrit and describe what information it provides when performed as a medical test.

Hematocrit is the percentage of RBCs in total blood volume. As a medical test it determines the amount of RBCs in the blood and can aid in the diagnosis of anemia or polycythemia.

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81

Describe the structure and function of hemoglobin

Structure - consists of globin and four heme groups.

Function - a protein that makes RBCs red, binds & carries oxygen through the body

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82

Describe the A blood type:

  • A antigen

  • B antibody

  • Can receive A & O blood

  • Can donate to A & AB types

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83

Describe the B blood type:

  • B antigen

  • A antibody

  • Can receive B & O blood

  • Can donate to B & AB types

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84

Describe the AB blood type:

  • A & B antigens

  • No antibodies

  • Universal recipient

  • Can only donate to AB types

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85

Describe O blood type:

  • No antigens

  • A & B antibodies

  • Can receive O blood

  • Universal donor

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86

Describe what is meant by Rh factor when typing blood

Those who carry the D Rh antigen are Rh+, those who do not are considered Rh-. This must be considered when typing blood because Rh- blood types can only receive from other Rh- types.

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87

What is the reason for transfusion reactions resulting from the administration of mismatched blood?

Plasma antibodies attack & destroy the donor’s RBCs

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88

What causes hemolytic disease of the newborn (Erythroblastosis fetalis) and what can be done to prevent it.

A woman who is Rh- becomes pregnant with a Rh+ baby. During delivery, the baby’s Rh+ antigens can enter the mother’s bloodstream, creating anti-Rh antibodies. This can be prevented by treating the mother with RhoGAM during the pregnancy and delivery of her first baby. If she is left untreated and becomes pregnant again with another Rh+ baby, the anti-Rh antibodies can cross through the placenta and destroy the baby’s RBCs, thereby causing Erythroblastosis fetalis in the newborn

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89

Describe polycythemia & cite the reason for this condition

An abnormally high number of erythrocytes, may occur when less oxygen is available or EPO production increases

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90

Describe leukocytosis & cite the reason for this condition

An increase in the number of leukocytes, results from a pathogen attack and may signal severe infection

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91

Describe leukopenia & cite the reason for this condition

Abnormally low WBC count, is typically induced by drugs

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92

Describe leukemia & cite the reason for this condition

A group of cancerous conditions involving the overproduction of abnormal WBCs

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93

Describe the hematocrit test & its significance

Determines the percentage of RBC to the total blood volume; can help identify anemia or polycythemia

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94

Describe the hemoglobin test & its significance

Determines the amount of hemoglobin, an oxygen-carrying protein, present in the blood; can help identify anemia

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95

Describe the differential WBC count test & its significance

Determines the relative proportion of individual leukocyte types present in blood; can help identify abnormal white blood cell populations

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96

Describe ABO blood typing & its significance

Used to identify A & B antigens present on RBCs; prevents transfusion reactions from occurring

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97

Describe Rh typing & its significance

Used to identify if a specific Rh antigen is present in the blood; prevents transfusion reaction from occurring

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98

Describe the size & location of the heart

The heart is about the size of a first and weighs less than a pound. It is located in the mediastinum and 2/3 of its weight lies left of the midsternal line. Its apex points towards the left hip & the base points toward the right shoulder. It rests upon the diaphragm.

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99
<p><span>Locate the major anatomical areas and structures of the anterior view of the heart </span></p>

Locate the major anatomical areas and structures of the anterior view of the heart

  1. Superior vena cava

  2. Right pulmonary artery

  3. Right pulmonary veins

  4. Right atrium

  5. Right coronary artery

  6. Right marginal artery

  7. Inferior vena cava

  8. Right ventricle

  9. Anterior interventricular artery

  10. Left ventricle

  11. Great cardiac vein

  12. Left coronary artery

  13. Pulmonary trunk

  14. Left atrium

  15. Left pulmonary artery

  16. Aortic arch

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100
<p>Locate the major anatomical areas and structures of the interior view of the heart </p>

Locate the major anatomical areas and structures of the interior view of the heart

  1. Right atrium

  2. Pulmonary valve

  3. Tricuspid valve

  4. Chordae tendineae

  5. Papillary muscle

  6. Right ventricle

  7. Interventricular septum

  8. Epicardium

  9. Myocardium

  10. Left ventricle

  11. Mitral valve

  12. Aortic valve

  13. Left atrium

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