AP World History - Unit 7: Global Conflict

studied byStudied by 2351 people
4.8(30)
get a hint
hint

Triple Alliance

1 / 58

59 Terms

1

Triple Alliance

Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy alliance formed to protect against France in 1880s

New cards
2

Contributors to Start of WWI

Feuds between European countries, industrialism, rise in nationalism, military build-up and powerful weapons, power-grabbing alliances

New cards
3

France-Russian Alliance

formed to keep Germany in check

New cards
4

Schlieffen Plan

Germany’s planned attack on France through Belgium (neutral country)

New cards
5

Triple Entente

Britain, France, Russia - later joined by Japan (and Italy when they switched sides in 1915)

New cards
6

Event that started WWI

Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated by Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip - Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia led to all allied groups getting involved

New cards
7

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Archduke of Austria-Hungary

New cards
8

Central Powers Alliance

Ottoman Empire, Germany, Austria-Hungary

New cards
9

How many countries joined the WWI?

over 40 - most due to colonial ties and alliances

New cards
10

Why did US join WWI?

  1. Germany sinking British civilian boat Lusitania in 1915

  2. Zimmermann telegram

  • Previously had an isolationism policy

New cards
11

Zimmermann telegram

Secret telegram between German diplomats saying Mexico could regain territory taken by US if they joined forces

New cards
12

Isolationism

neutrality, focusing on internal affairs instead

New cards
13

WWI End

Germany and Central Powers gave up in November 1918

New cards
14

WWI Effects

  • 8.5 million soldiers were killed

  • 20 million civilians died

New cards
15

Treaty of Versailles

signed in 1919 - official end to WWI

New cards
16

Treaty of Versailles Main Points

  1. Germany was to pay war reparations, release territory, downsize military to prevent them from rising to power again

  2. Austria-Hungary divided into other nations like Czechoslovakia

  3. Britain and France put strict punishments on Germany - US wanted to focus on President Wilson’s Fourteen Points

New cards
17

President Wilson’s Fourteen Points

more focused on future peace and workable balance of power - but was disapproved of by Britain and France

New cards
18

League of Nations

President Wilson called for formation of council to preserve peace and establish humanitarian goals, but was not widely accepted (even by US)

New cards
19

Czar Nicholas II

Russian czar who was forced to resign in 1917 over growing resentment among working class

New cards
20

Alexander Kerensky

established a provisional government in Russia after czar Nicholas II - ineffective because it disagreed with the local councils, soviets, who represented workers, peasants, and soldiers

New cards
21

Bolsheviks

Led by Marxist leader Vladimir Lenin - Socialist party that was backed by the Russian working class

New cards
22

April Theses

issues by Vladimir Lenin - demanded peace, land for peasants, power to soviets

  • within 6 months took power of government - soon to be called Soviet Union

New cards
23

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

1918 - armistice with Germany - ceded part of western Russia to Germany so they dropped out of WWI

New cards
24

Red Army

Bolshevik military force under Leon Trotsky to defeat counterrevolutions against Russian leadership

New cards
25

What happened when Ottoman Empire joined Central Powers in WWI?

A movement to reclaim Turkish culture occurred and spawned a genocide of Armenian minority and a shift to Turkish nationalism

  • resulted in loss of most of remaining land in peace negotiations

New cards
26

Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk)

Led successful military against invading Greece and overthrew Ottoman Empire to become first president of Turkey

New cards
27

What did the Soviets do when they dropped out of WWI?

Focused on their own domestic problems - Lenin instituted the New Economic Policy

New cards
28

New Economic Policy (Vladimir Lenin)

1920s - allowed farmers to sell portions of grain for profit - successful, but Lenin died and new Communist leader, Joseph Stalin discarded it

New cards
29

Five-Year Plans (Joseph Stalin)

taking over private farms for state-owned enterprises (collectivization) - really was totalitarianism

New cards
30

USSR

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics led by Joseph Stalin - relied on terror (secret police, bogus trials, assassinations)

New cards
31

What led to The Great Depression (1930s)?

War was expensive and Europe owed a lot of money to America, who had given out loans to a lot of countries and weren’t getting them back

  • US stock market crash in 1929 leading to international catastrophe

New cards
32

Who has hit the hardest by the Great Depression?

US and Germany - 1/3 of workforce unemployed

  • loss of trust in government in countries with weak democracies = fascism

New cards
33

Fascism

Political structure with goal to destroy will of individual in favour of the people

  • Wanted a unified society like communists, but did not eliminate private property or class distinctions

  • Pushed for extreme nationalism - often on basis of racism

New cards
34

Fascism in Italy

First fascist state - founded by Benito Mussolini in 1919

  • Led through force and fear which led him to take over the government in 1922

  • Utilized Blackshirts

New cards
35

Blackshirts

Fought socialist and communist organizations to win over factory and land owners

New cards
36

Weimar Republic

German emperor was abdicated after WWI so a conservative democratic republic took over

New cards
37

Nationalist Socialist Party (Nazis)

Mussolini’s success in Italy was influencing Germany so Nazi party was formed to help the economic crisis in Germany and rose to power in the 20s

New cards
38

Reichstag

Weimar Republic elected body - rejected by the people due to the economic crisis in Germany

New cards
39

Adolf Hitler

became head of Nazi Party in the 20s - believed in extreme nationalism and superior race - believed the Aryan race was the most superior race

  • eventually became leader of the Reichstag in 1933

New cards
40

Third Reich

Hitler’s fascist rule in Germany from 30s to 40s

New cards
41

How did Hitler go against the Treaty of Versailles?

  1. Began rebuilding military

  2. Withdrew Germany from League of Nations

  3. Took back the Rhineland part of Germany

  4. Formed alliance with militant Japan

  5. Annexed Austria

New cards
42

Dictatorship in Spain

Spain was in turmoil after fall of Spanish monarchy - nationalist army under General Francisco Franco took control of large parts of Spain

  • Established a dictatorship in Spain in 1939 with help from Germany and Italy

New cards
43

Munich Conference of 1938

Hitler, Mussolini, Neville Chamberlin of England

  • Hitler given Sudetenland to cease his expansionist activities (appeasement) - did not work

New cards
44

Hitler’s Invasions that Led to Start of WWII

  1. Invaded rest of Czechoslovakia in 1939

  2. Invaded Poland in 1939

  • Britain and France first declared war on Germany

New cards
45

Nazi-Soviet Pact

Germans and Soviets signed a pact to stay out of each other’s countries and agreed to divide rest of Europe’s land between them

New cards
46

How did Japan gain more power?

  • Accepted an alliance with Britain in 1905

  • Japanese militarists gained momentum after economic downfall in Japan from Great Depression

  • Invaded Manchuria in 1931 and renamed in Manchukuo

  • Withdrew from League of Nations and signed Anti-Comintern Pact (against communism) with Germany, beginning their alliance

New cards
47

How did Japan get involved in WWII

Alliance with Germany and 1937 war with China (which eventually moved into WWII

New cards
48

WWII Timeline

1939: War officially declared against Germany - allied countries get involved

1940: Hitler’s blitzkrieg technique got control of Poland (half with USSR), Holland, Belgium, France - tried taking over Britain but were unsuccessful

1941: Germany invaded Greece breaking their deal with Soviet Union, so they invaded the Soviet Union too - Japan bombs Pearl Harbour in Hawaii so US declares war on Japan and joins WWII

1943: US and Britain take control of Italy

1944: US, Britain, and Canada land on French beaches (D-day) and eventually liberate France

1945: Allied forces close in on Germany and end Europe war when Hitler commits suicide

New cards
49

End of WWII in Pacific

US drops atomic bomb on city of Hiroshima in Japan - when Japan refused to surrender, they dropped another bomb on Nagasaki, causing them to surrender

New cards
50

Battle of Britain

Airstrike war between Germany and Britain in attempt for Germany to capture Britain

New cards
51

Winston Churchill

Britain’s PM during WWII that prevented Britain from being captured

New cards
52

The Holocaust

Millions of Jews under German control were rounded up and killed in concentration camps to create the Aryan race

New cards
53

WWII Peace Settlement

US and Soviet Union became superpowers and Germany and Japan forced to demilitarize

New cards
54

Marshall Plan

US movements to rebuild Europe (only accepted by Western Europe nations) and rebuilt their economies in less than a decade

New cards
55

WWII Causing Decline in Colonialism

War inspired native populations to rise against their oppressors

New cards
56

WWII Causing Changes in Women’s Rights

Women took over the workforce while men were fighting - after the war, many women kept their jobs

New cards
57

United Nations

established in 1945, to prevent break out of another great war - goal was to mediate and intervene in international disputes

New cards
58

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Published by UN in response to Holocaust

New cards
59

Cold War

US or Soviet Union did not want each other to spread its influence beyond their borders, so they began strategizing how to contain each other - lasting for the next 50 years

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 53356 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(282)
note Note
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 43 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 30 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 96 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(7)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard37 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard28 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard27 terms
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard28 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard44 terms
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 274 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard24 terms
studied byStudied by 121 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)