Advertising

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<p>Members of trade channels include:</p><ol><li><p>not-for-profit businesses</p></li><li><p>retailers</p></li><li><p>household consumers</p></li><li><p>government officials</p></li></ol><p></p>

Members of trade channels include:

  1. not-for-profit businesses

  2. retailers

  3. household consumers

  4. government officials

retailers

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<p>_______is the process of creating a perceived distinction between an organization’s brand and a competitor’s brand.</p><ol><li><p>Differentiation</p></li><li><p>Market analysis</p></li><li><p>Co-op advertising</p></li><li><p>Market segmentation</p></li></ol>

_______is the process of creating a perceived distinction between an organization’s brand and a competitor’s brand.

  1. Differentiation

  2. Market analysis

  3. Co-op advertising

  4. Market segmentation

Differentiation

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<p>In today’s world, what three elements do marketers want to build and maintain through their promotional and advertising efforts?</p><ol><li><p>Awareness, identity, and preference</p></li><li><p>Attention, curiosity, and response</p></li><li><p>Demand, value, and interaction</p></li><li><p>Information, message, and communication</p></li></ol>

In today’s world, what three elements do marketers want to build and maintain through their promotional and advertising efforts?

  1. Awareness, identity, and preference

  2. Attention, curiosity, and response

  3. Demand, value, and interaction

  4. Information, message, and communication

Awareness, identity, and preference

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<p>When national companies and local merchants share advertising expenses, they are taking part in_____.</p><ol><li><p>brand extensions</p></li><li><p>international advertising</p></li><li><p>cooperative advertising</p></li><li><p>trade channeling</p></li></ol><p></p>

When national companies and local merchants share advertising expenses, they are taking part in_____.

  1. brand extensions

  2. international advertising

  3. cooperative advertising

  4. trade channeling

cooperative advertising

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<p>Which of the following is true of integrated brand promotion (IBP)?</p><ol><li><p>it is a simple process</p></li><li><p>it uses promotional tools that do not need to be evaluated</p></li><li><p>it prevents the exposure of a brand</p></li><li><p>it creates synergy by having a consistent image or message</p></li></ol>

Which of the following is true of integrated brand promotion (IBP)?

  1. it is a simple process

  2. it uses promotional tools that do not need to be evaluated

  3. it prevents the exposure of a brand

  4. it creates synergy by having a consistent image or message

it creates synergy by having a consistent image or message

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<p>Which of the following is true regarding advertising?</p><ol><li><p>Advertising is external to the social interaction process</p></li><li><p>Advertising is solely responsible for the increase of product sales</p></li><li><p>Advertising must consider audience categories, such as household consumers or members of business organizations, for its IBP communications</p></li><li><p>Advertising is a simple communication process</p></li></ol>

Which of the following is true regarding advertising?

  1. Advertising is external to the social interaction process

  2. Advertising is solely responsible for the increase of product sales

  3. Advertising must consider audience categories, such as household consumers or members of business organizations, for its IBP communications

  4. Advertising is a simple communication process

Advertising must consider audience categories, such as household consumers or members of business organizations, for its IBP communications

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<p>Public service announcements (PSAs):</p><ol><li><p>are a type of advertising that are run by nonprofit organizations</p></li><li><p>are commercial the way that ads are</p></li><li><p>attempt only to persuade and not to inform</p></li><li><p>are not necessarily “paid media” like advertisements are</p></li></ol>

Public service announcements (PSAs):

  1. are a type of advertising that are run by nonprofit organizations

  2. are commercial the way that ads are

  3. attempt only to persuade and not to inform

  4. are not necessarily “paid media” like advertisements are

are not necessarily “paid media” like advertisements are

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<p>There is a production source, a message, encoding, and decoding in a model of ____.</p><ol><li><p>mass-mediated communication</p></li><li><p>cooperative advertising</p></li><li><p>a focus group</p></li><li><p>a sponsorship</p></li></ol>

There is a production source, a message, encoding, and decoding in a model of ____.

  1. mass-mediated communication

  2. cooperative advertising

  3. a focus group

  4. a sponsorship

mass-mediated communication

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<p>Firms are developing opportunities in ___ through communication via devices like smart phones, tablets, and wearables.</p><ol><li><p>broadcast media</p></li><li><p>mobile marketing, digital marketing, and social media marketing</p></li><li><p>personal selling</p></li><li><p>print media</p></li></ol>

Firms are developing opportunities in ___ through communication via devices like smart phones, tablets, and wearables.

  1. broadcast media

  2. mobile marketing, digital marketing, and social media marketing

  3. personal selling

  4. print media

mobile marketing, digital marketing, and social media marketing

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<p>Integrated brand promotion (IBP) is:</p><ol><li><p>the collaboration of two or more brands within a single advertisement with the intent of sharing costs</p></li><li><p>the coordination of a number of promotional tools to create widespread brand exposure</p></li><li><p>a company’s decision to focus on a wide range of traditional advertising forms to replace nontraditional forms</p></li><li><p>a unique concept seen mainly in local advertising campaigns</p></li></ol>

Integrated brand promotion (IBP) is:

  1. the collaboration of two or more brands within a single advertisement with the intent of sharing costs

  2. the coordination of a number of promotional tools to create widespread brand exposure

  3. a company’s decision to focus on a wide range of traditional advertising forms to replace nontraditional forms

  4. a unique concept seen mainly in local advertising campaigns

the coordination of a number of promotional tools to create widespread brand exposure

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<p>Which of the following is one of the four areas of responsibility in the marketing mix?</p><ol><li><p>Privacy</p></li><li><p>Permissions</p></li><li><p>People</p></li><li><p>Promotions</p></li></ol>

Which of the following is one of the four areas of responsibility in the marketing mix?

  1. Privacy

  2. Permissions

  3. People

  4. Promotions

Promotions

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<p>____attempts to develop brand awareness and preference over time, as well as emphasize the benefits of using that brand.</p><ol><li><p>Co-op advertising</p></li><li><p>Direct response advertising</p></li><li><p>Sales promotion</p></li><li><p>Delayed response advertising</p></li></ol>

____attempts to develop brand awareness and preference over time, as well as emphasize the benefits of using that brand.

  1. Co-op advertising

  2. Direct response advertising

  3. Sales promotion

  4. Delayed response advertising

Delayed response advertising

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<p>The mixing of various promotional tools with a branding perspective is known as _____.</p><ol><li><p>integrated brand promotion</p></li><li><p>a marketing mix</p></li><li><p>cooperative advertising</p></li><li><p>market segmentation</p></li></ol>

The mixing of various promotional tools with a branding perspective is known as _____.

  1. integrated brand promotion

  2. a marketing mix

  3. cooperative advertising

  4. market segmentation

integrated brand promotion

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<p>____ is a type of advertising that communicates the specific features, values, and benefits of a product offered by a particular company.</p><ol><li><p>Advocacy advertising</p></li><li><p>Corporate advertising</p></li><li><p>Brand advertising</p></li><li><p>Institutional advertising</p></li></ol>

____ is a type of advertising that communicates the specific features, values, and benefits of a product offered by a particular company.

  1. Advocacy advertising

  2. Corporate advertising

  3. Brand advertising

  4. Institutional advertising

Brand advertising

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<p>Effective internal positioning is accomplished by:</p><ol><li><p>distributing products to a market that is wider than those of one’s competitors</p></li><li><p>using advertising to compare a product’s distinctions form those of one’s rival firms</p></li><li><p>developing brand features and values that are distinctive from the competition</p></li><li><p>developing vastly different products within the firm’s product line</p></li></ol>

Effective internal positioning is accomplished by:

  1. distributing products to a market that is wider than those of one’s competitors

  2. using advertising to compare a product’s distinctions form those of one’s rival firms

  3. developing brand features and values that are distinctive from the competition

  4. developing vastly different products within the firm’s product line

developing vastly different products within the firm’s product line

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<p>Two components of the mass-mediated communication model are:</p><ol><li><p>primary demand and selective demand</p></li><li><p>advertiser and consumer.</p></li><li><p>internal position and external position.</p></li><li><p>production and reception.</p></li></ol>

Two components of the mass-mediated communication model are:

  1. primary demand and selective demand

  2. advertiser and consumer.

  3. internal position and external position.

  4. production and reception.

production and reception.

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<p>Which of the following is considered as a member of a trade channel?</p><ol><li><p>Wholesalers</p></li><li><p>Household consumers</p></li><li><p>Government employees</p></li><li><p>Philanthropic groups</p></li></ol>

Which of the following is considered as a member of a trade channel?

  1. Wholesalers

  2. Household consumers

  3. Government employees

  4. Philanthropic groups

Wholesalers (retailers, distributors)

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<p>A compensation system that adds a percentage amount to a variety of services the agency purchases from outside suppliers is known as a ____.</p><ol><li><p>markup charge</p></li><li><p>fee system</p></li><li><p>pay-for-results compensation</p></li><li><p>commission system</p></li></ol>

A compensation system that adds a percentage amount to a variety of services the agency purchases from outside suppliers is known as a ____.

  1. markup charge

  2. fee system

  3. pay-for-results compensation

  4. commission system

markup charge

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<p>___are specialists that design and then operate contests, sweepstakes, special displays, or coupon campaigns for advertisers.</p><ol><li><p>Creative boutiques</p></li><li><p>Sales promotion agencies</p></li><li><p>Database agencies</p></li><li><p>Fulfillment centers</p></li></ol>

___are specialists that design and then operate contests, sweepstakes, special displays, or coupon campaigns for advertisers.

  1. Creative boutiques

  2. Sales promotion agencies

  3. Database agencies

  4. Fulfillment centers

Sales promotion agencies

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<p>Which of the following best describes digital agencies?</p><ol><li><p>They focus on ways to use digital solutions for direct marketing and target market communications and social media</p></li><li><p>They implement direct response campaigns using all forms of media</p></li><li><p>They design direct marketing campaigns that mainly use emails and telemarketing</p></li><li><p>They specialize in buying media time and space and offer media strategies to advertisement agencies</p></li></ol>

Which of the following best describes digital agencies?

  1. They focus on ways to use digital solutions for direct marketing and target market communications and social media

  2. They implement direct response campaigns using all forms of media

  3. They design direct marketing campaigns that mainly use emails and telemarketing

  4. They specialize in buying media time and space and offer media strategies to advertisement agencies

They focus on ways to use digital solutions for direct marketing and target market communications and social media

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<p>___help firms in creating the visual impression of its advertising material.</p><ol><li><p>Sales promotion agencies</p></li><li><p>Fulfillment centers</p></li><li><p>Designers</p></li><li><p>Bloggers</p></li></ol>

___help firms in creating the visual impression of its advertising material.

  1. Sales promotion agencies

  2. Fulfillment centers

  3. Designers

  4. Bloggers

Designers

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<p>____is used by organizations to get consumers committed to brands in a way that passive advertising cannot.</p><ol><li><p>Co-op advertising</p></li><li><p>Phishing</p></li><li><p>Crowdsourcing</p></li><li><p>Broadcasting</p></li></ol>

____is used by organizations to get consumers committed to brands in a way that passive advertising cannot.

  1. Co-op advertising

  2. Phishing

  3. Crowdsourcing

  4. Broadcasting

Crowdsourcing

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<p>Which of the following services occur within an ad agency?</p><ol><li><p>Administrative services</p></li><li><p>Creative services</p></li><li><p>Account services</p></li><li><p>Production services</p></li></ol>

Which of the following services occur within an ad agency?

  1. Administrative services

  2. Creative services

  3. Account services

  4. Production services

Production services

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<p>Which of the following services of an advertising agency involves expressing the benefits of a company’s brand in interesting and memorable ways?</p><ol><li><p>Creative services</p></li><li><p>Billing services</p></li><li><p>Administrative services</p></li><li><p>Media buying services</p></li></ol>

Which of the following services of an advertising agency involves expressing the benefits of a company’s brand in interesting and memorable ways?

  1. Creative services

  2. Billing services

  3. Administrative services

  4. Media buying services

Creative services

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<p>Websites frequented by individuals with common interests where they can post facts, opinions, and personal experiences are known as ___.</p><ol><li><p>paywalls</p></li><li><p>blogs</p></li><li><p>infomercials</p></li><li><p>creative boutiques</p></li></ol>

Websites frequented by individuals with common interests where they can post facts, opinions, and personal experiences are known as ___.

  1. paywalls

  2. blogs

  3. infomercials

  4. creative boutiques

blogs

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<p>____is a high-speed technology that allows consumers to customize their programming and target very specific audiences.</p><ol><li><p>Transit</p></li><li><p>Crowdsourcing</p></li><li><p>Broadband</p></li><li><p>Cable</p></li></ol>

____is a high-speed technology that allows consumers to customize their programming and target very specific audiences.

  1. Transit

  2. Crowdsourcing

  3. Broadband

  4. Cable

Broadband

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<p>The___ services department of an advertising agency typically includes the company’s art directors, illustrators, and copywriters.</p><ol><li><p>creative</p></li><li><p>media buying</p></li><li><p>marketing</p></li><li><p>administrative</p></li></ol>

The___ services department of an advertising agency typically includes the company’s art directors, illustrators, and copywriters.

  1. creative

  2. media buying

  3. marketing

  4. administrative

creative

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<p>A(n)___ coordinates the research effort of an advertisement agency.</p><ol><li><p>graphic designer</p></li><li><p>media specialist</p></li><li><p>account planner</p></li><li><p>fulfillment center</p></li></ol>

A(n)___ coordinates the research effort of an advertisement agency.

  1. graphic designer

  2. media specialist

  3. account planner

  4. fulfillment center

account planner

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<p>Which of the following best describes a media conglomerate?</p><ol><li><p>It is a firm that operates multiple media combinations</p></li><li><p>It is a firm that is a specialist in one particular form of media</p></li><li><p>It is a firm that specializes solely in buying media time and space</p></li><li><p>It is a firm that uses print media instead of broadcast media</p></li></ol>

Which of the following best describes a media conglomerate?

  1. It is a firm that operates multiple media combinations

  2. It is a firm that is a specialist in one particular form of media

  3. It is a firm that specializes solely in buying media time and space

  4. It is a firm that uses print media instead of broadcast media

It is a firm that operates multiple media combinations

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<p>The graphic mark that identifies a company is known as a(n)___.</p><ol><li><p>patent</p></li><li><p>blog</p></li><li><p>logo</p></li><li><p>slogan</p></li></ol>

The graphic mark that identifies a company is known as a(n)___.

  1. patent

  2. blog

  3. logo

  4. slogan

logo

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<p>Advertisers and their agencies rely primarily on external facilitators for:</p><ol><li><p>consumer research</p></li><li><p>media buying</p></li><li><p>assessing the effectiveness of promotional programs</p></li><li><p>production processes</p></li></ol>

Advertisers and their agencies rely primarily on external facilitators for:

  1. consumer research

  2. media buying

  3. assessing the effectiveness of promotional programs

  4. production processes

production processes

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<p>A ____ is a general description for all organization in the marketing channel of distribution that buy products to make them available to customers.</p><ol><li><p>sponsor</p></li><li><p>media buyer</p></li><li><p>media specialist</p></li><li><p>trade reseller</p></li></ol>

A ____ is a general description for all organization in the marketing channel of distribution that buy products to make them available to customers.

  1. sponsor

  2. media buyer

  3. media specialist

  4. trade reseller

trade reseller

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<p>A(n) ___ is often known as the advertising department in a firm.</p><ol><li><p>creative boutique</p></li><li><p>full-service agency</p></li><li><p>interactive agency</p></li><li><p>in-house agency</p></li></ol>

A(n) ___ is often known as the advertising department in a firm.

  1. creative boutique

  2. full-service agency

  3. interactive agency

  4. in-house agency

in-house agency

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<p>____are experts in finding locations, securing dates, and putting together a team of people to pull off a promotional activity.</p><ol><li><p>Event- planning agencies</p></li><li><p>Creative boutiques</p></li><li><p>Fulfillment centers</p></li><li><p>Direct marketing agencies</p></li></ol>

____are experts in finding locations, securing dates, and putting together a team of people to pull off a promotional activity.

  1. Event- planning agencies

  2. Creative boutiques

  3. Fulfillment centers

  4. Direct marketing agencies

Event-planning agencies

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<p>In which of the following areas is the federal government’s spending on advertising and promotion concentrated?</p><ol><li><p>The internal revenue service</p></li><li><p>Political campaigns</p></li><li><p>Armed forces recruitment</p></li><li><p>Trade and commerce</p></li></ol>

In which of the following areas is the federal government’s spending on advertising and promotion concentrated?

  1. The internal revenue service

  2. Political campaigns

  3. Armed forces recruitment

  4. Trade and commerce

Armed forces recruitment

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<p>Advertisers are also known as ____ by their advertising and promotion agency partners.</p><ol><li><p>consultants</p></li><li><p>facilitators</p></li><li><p>sponsors</p></li><li><p>clients</p></li></ol>

Advertisers are also known as ____ by their advertising and promotion agency partners.

  1. consultants

  2. facilitators

  3. sponsors

  4. clients

clients

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<p>_____ provide the physical facilities, including sets, stage equipment, and crews needed for broadcasting.</p><ol><li><p>Production houses</p></li><li><p>Creative boutiques</p></li><li><p>Fulfillment centers</p></li><li><p>Interactive agencies</p></li></ol>

_____ provide the physical facilities, including sets, stage equipment, and crews needed for broadcasting.

  1. Production houses

  2. Creative boutiques

  3. Fulfillment centers

  4. Interactive agencies

Production houses

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<p>____is an advertising technique whereby a manufacturer and wholesaler share the expense of advertising.</p><ol><li><p>Differentiation</p></li><li><p>Subliminal advertising</p></li><li><p>Market segmentation</p></li><li><p>Vertical cooperative advertising</p></li></ol>

____is an advertising technique whereby a manufacturer and wholesaler share the expense of advertising.

  1. Differentiation

  2. Subliminal advertising

  3. Market segmentation

  4. Vertical cooperative advertising

Vertical cooperative advertising

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<p>___are moral standards and principles against which behavior is judged.</p><ol><li><p>Ethics</p></li><li><p>Appropriations</p></li><li><p>Sects</p></li><li><p>Dailies</p></li></ol>

___are moral standards and principles against which behavior is judged.

  1. Ethics

  2. Appropriations

  3. Sects

  4. Dailies

Ethics

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<p>What concept is involved when a statement that occurs in print is untrue and damages the reputation of a person, based on words found in magazine, newspaper, direct mail, or Internet reports?</p><ol><li><p>Libel</p></li><li><p>Slander</p></li><li><p>Larceny</p></li><li><p>Appropriation</p></li></ol>

What concept is involved when a statement that occurs in print is untrue and damages the reputation of a person, based on words found in magazine, newspaper, direct mail, or Internet reports?

  1. Libel

  2. Slander

  3. Larceny

  4. Appropriation

Libel

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<p>Marketers have to be particularly cautious about using___ without legal protection, as fraud abounds.</p><ol><li><p>coupons</p></li><li><p>billboards</p></li><li><p>premiums</p></li><li><p>trade allowances</p></li></ol>

Marketers have to be particularly cautious about using___ without legal protection, as fraud abounds.

  1. coupons

  2. billboards

  3. premiums

  4. trade allowances

coupons

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<p>The __ is dedicated to one dedicated idea—“unleashing the world-changing power of consumers.”</p><ol><li><p>Consumer Finance Protection Agency</p></li><li><p>Consumer Federation of America</p></li><li><p>Consumers Union</p></li><li><p>Consumer Review Unit</p></li></ol>

The __ is dedicated to one dedicated idea—“unleashing the world-changing power of consumers.”

  1. Consumer Finance Protection Agency

  2. Consumer Federation of America

  3. Consumers Union

  4. Consumer Review Unit

Consumers Union

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<p>The ___ outlines the responsibilities and social impact of advertising and promotes high ethical standards of honestly and decency.</p><ol><li><p>Advertising Substantiation Program</p></li><li><p>American Association of Advertising Agencies’ Creative Code</p></li><li><p>Federal Communications Commission</p></li><li><p>Code Authority of the NAB</p></li></ol>

The ___ outlines the responsibilities and social impact of advertising and promotes high ethical standards of honestly and decency.

  1. Advertising Substantiation Program

  2. American Association of Advertising Agencies’ Creative Code

  3. Federal Communications Commission

  4. Code Authority of the NAB

American Association of Advertising Agencies’ Creative Code

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<p>The ____ of the FTC was initiated in 1971 with the intention of ensuring that advertisers make supporting evidence for claims available to consumers.</p><ol><li><p>Wheeler-Lea Amendment</p></li><li><p>advertising substantiation program</p></li><li><p>Robinson-Patman Act</p></li><li><p>Federal Communication Commission</p></li></ol>

The ____ of the FTC was initiated in 1971 with the intention of ensuring that advertisers make supporting evidence for claims available to consumers.

  1. Wheeler-Lea Amendment

  2. advertising substantiation program

  3. Robinson-Patman Act

  4. Federal Communication Commission

advertising substantiation program

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<p>Despite being registered under the Do Not Call Registry, a person can receive calls from:</p><ol><li><p>businesses they’ve contacted in the last six months</p></li><li><p>charities, political groups, market research firms, and companies you do business with</p></li><li><p>companies that have delivered something to the person in the last 24 months</p></li><li><p>co-operatives and insurance firms</p></li></ol>

Despite being registered under the Do Not Call Registry, a person can receive calls from:

  1. businesses they’ve contacted in the last six months

  2. charities, political groups, market research firms, and companies you do business with

  3. companies that have delivered something to the person in the last 24 months

  4. co-operatives and insurance firms

charities, political groups, market research firms, and companies you do business with

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<p>Which of the following best describes primary demand?</p><ol><li><p>It is the demand for an entire range of various products</p></li><li><p>It is the demand for a specific brand</p></li><li><p>It is the demand for a specific product</p></li><li><p>It is the demand for an entire product category</p></li></ol>

Which of the following best describes primary demand?

  1. It is the demand for an entire range of various products

  2. It is the demand for a specific brand

  3. It is the demand for a specific product

  4. It is the demand for an entire product category

It is the demand for an entire product category

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<p>Which nonprofit consumer organization was established in 1936 and is known for its publication of Consumer Reports?</p><ol><li><p>Consumer Federation of America</p></li><li><p>Consumers Union</p></li><li><p>Consumer Alert</p></li><li><p>Commercial Alert</p></li></ol>

Which nonprofit consumer organization was established in 1936 and is known for its publication of Consumer Reports?

  1. Consumer Federation of America

  2. Consumers Union

  3. Consumer Alert

  4. Commercial Alert

Consumers Union

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<p>According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, which of the following is the highest order of all human needs?</p><ol><li><p>Esteem needs</p></li><li><p>Physiological needs</p></li><li><p>Safety needs</p></li><li><p>Self-actualization needs</p></li></ol>

According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, which of the following is the highest order of all human needs?

  1. Esteem needs

  2. Physiological needs

  3. Safety needs

  4. Self-actualization needs

Self-actualization needs

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<p>____ refers to unsolicited commercial messages, usually sent through e-mail.</p><ol><li><p>Behavioral targeting</p></li><li><p>Spam</p></li><li><p>Premiums</p></li><li><p>Infomercials</p></li></ol>

____ refers to unsolicited commercial messages, usually sent through e-mail.

  1. Behavioral targeting

  2. Spam

  3. Premiums

  4. Infomercials

Spam

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<p>The ____ gives broad oversight over consumer products such as credit cards, money transfers, and payday loans.</p><ol><li><p>Monetary Exchange Regulatory Board</p></li><li><p>Federal Communications Commission</p></li><li><p>Consumer Finance Protection Agency</p></li><li><p>National Consumer Fiscal Agency</p></li></ol>

The ____ gives broad oversight over consumer products such as credit cards, money transfers, and payday loans.

  1. Monetary Exchange Regulatory Board

  2. Federal Communications Commission

  3. Consumer Finance Protection Agency

  4. National Consumer Fiscal Agency

Consumer Finance Protection Agency

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<p>____ is an insidious version of spam where Web users are enticed into entering personal information on a fake website that is forged to look like it is from a bank, the IRS, or other organizations.</p><ol><li><p>Click-Fraud</p></li><li><p>Appropriation</p></li><li><p>Geofencing</p></li><li><p>Phishing</p></li></ol>

____ is an insidious version of spam where Web users are enticed into entering personal information on a fake website that is forged to look like it is from a bank, the IRS, or other organizations.

  1. Click-Fraud

  2. Appropriation

  3. Geofencing

  4. Phishing

Phishing

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<p>Stephen Fox, a history and social observer, concludes that the history of American advertisement has been:</p><ol><li><p>genuine and trustworthy</p></li><li><p>simple and smart</p></li><li><p>irrelevant and incoherent</p></li><li><p>money-mad and hedonistic</p></li></ol>

Stephen Fox, a history and social observer, concludes that the history of American advertisement has been:

  1. genuine and trustworthy

  2. simple and smart

  3. irrelevant and incoherent

  4. money-mad and hedonistic

money-mad and hedonistic

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<p>____ was established by the Better Business Bureau to evaluate ads directed at children based on guidelines that encourage sensitivity to their level of sophistication and knowledge, as well as emphasis on positive social traits such as friendship and kindness.</p><ol><li><p>The Family Research Council</p></li><li><p>The Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative</p></li><li><p>The Children’s Advertising Review Unit</p></li><li><p>The Children’s Television Act</p></li></ol>

____ was established by the Better Business Bureau to evaluate ads directed at children based on guidelines that encourage sensitivity to their level of sophistication and knowledge, as well as emphasis on positive social traits such as friendship and kindness.

  1. The Family Research Council

  2. The Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative

  3. The Children’s Advertising Review Unit

  4. The Children’s Television Act

The Children’s Advertising Review Unit

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<p>Although the courts and the FTC have been quite specific about defining many other practices, the definition of ____ has always been relatively vague.</p><ol><li><p>unfair advertising</p></li><li><p>copyright infringement in advertising</p></li><li><p>false labelling and packaging</p></li><li><p>phishing in online advertising</p></li></ol>

Although the courts and the FTC have been quite specific about defining many other practices, the definition of ____ has always been relatively vague.

  1. unfair advertising

  2. copyright infringement in advertising

  3. false labelling and packaging

  4. phishing in online advertising

unfair advertising

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<p>The Fair Packaging and Labeling Act regulating advertising focuses on:</p><ol><li><p>a way for consumers to compare the cost of household commodities and to prevent deceptive packaging</p></li><li><p>regulation of direct mail advertising and prohibiting lotteries</p></li><li><p>preventing obscenity, fraud, and the ability to deny or revoke licenses</p></li><li><p>direct mail</p></li></ol>

The Fair Packaging and Labeling Act regulating advertising focuses on:

  1. a way for consumers to compare the cost of household commodities and to prevent deceptive packaging

  2. regulation of direct mail advertising and prohibiting lotteries

  3. preventing obscenity, fraud, and the ability to deny or revoke licenses

  4. direct mail

a way for consumers to compare the cost of household commodities and to prevent deceptive packaging

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<p>Which of the following best describes stealth sponsorship?</p><ol><li><p>it is when corporations pay journalists to give negative opinions about their competitors in their editorials</p></li><li><p>it is when corporations embed hidden messages in social media advertisements to unconsciously stimulate people to want something</p></li><li><p>it is when journalists are paid by corporations to receive favorable treatment in their editorials</p></li><li><p>it is when corporations partner with ancillary firms that they deal with to receive monetary favors from them</p></li></ol>

Which of the following best describes stealth sponsorship?

  1. it is when corporations pay journalists to give negative opinions about their competitors in their editorials

  2. it is when corporations embed hidden messages in social media advertisements to unconsciously stimulate people to want something

  3. it is when journalists are paid by corporations to receive favorable treatment in their editorials

  4. it is when corporations partner with ancillary firms that they deal with to receive monetary favors from them

it is when journalists are paid by corporations to receive favorable treatment in their editorials

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<p>_____ is the use of pictures or images owned by someone else without permission.</p><ol><li><p>defamation</p></li><li><p>spamming</p></li><li><p>phishing</p></li><li><p>appropriation</p></li></ol>

_____ is the use of pictures or images owned by someone else without permission.

  1. defamation

  2. spamming

  3. phishing

  4. appropriation

appropriation

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<p>The cost of products is lowered:</p><ol><li><p>when there are high success rates of a product</p></li><li><p>by lowering the economies of scale of a product</p></li><li><p>when there is a high inelasticity of demand for a product</p></li><li><p>when there are little or no competitors with a similar product</p></li></ol>

The cost of products is lowered:

  1. when there are high success rates of a product

  2. by lowering the economies of scale of a product

  3. when there is a high inelasticity of demand for a product

  4. when there are little or no competitors with a similar product

by lowering the economies of scale of a product

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<p>According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs structure, ads for food or health care products can be thought of as promotions for products that address:</p><ol><li><p>physiological needs</p></li><li><p>love and belonging needs</p></li><li><p>self-actualizing needs</p></li><li><p>esteem needs</p></li></ol>

According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs structure, ads for food or health care products can be thought of as promotions for products that address:

  1. physiological needs

  2. love and belonging needs

  3. self-actualizing needs

  4. esteem needs

physiological needs

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<p>What was one of the government’s earliest restrictions that targeted specific techniques and polices being used in programming and advertising designed for children?</p><ol><li><p>The Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative</p></li><li><p>The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act</p></li><li><p>The “Cheeseburger Bill”</p></li><li><p>The Children’s Television Act</p></li></ol>

What was one of the government’s earliest restrictions that targeted specific techniques and polices being used in programming and advertising designed for children?

  1. The Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative

  2. The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act

  3. The “Cheeseburger Bill”

  4. The Children’s Television Act

The Children’s Television Act

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<p>The Cheeseburger Bill passed by the U.S. House of Representatives:</p><ol><li><p>restricts advertisements featuring high calorie and high fat foods during children’s programming</p></li><li><p>prevents falsifying nutrition information for fast foods</p></li><li><p>bars the promotion of toys to children that tie in with fast foods, sugary drinks, and salty snacks</p></li><li><p>blocks people from suing food companies for their obesity</p></li></ol>

The Cheeseburger Bill passed by the U.S. House of Representatives:

  1. restricts advertisements featuring high calorie and high fat foods during children’s programming

  2. prevents falsifying nutrition information for fast foods

  3. bars the promotion of toys to children that tie in with fast foods, sugary drinks, and salty snacks

  4. blocks people from suing food companies for their obesity

blocks people from suing food companies for their obesity

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<p>A person is most likely to have a high degree of involvement while buying:</p><ol><li><p>laundry detergent</p></li><li><p>a notepad</p></li><li><p>paper towels</p></li><li><p>a car</p></li></ol>

A person is most likely to have a high degree of involvement while buying:

  1. laundry detergent

  2. a notepad

  3. paper towels

  4. a car

a car

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<p>____ memory is the kind of memory through which names, words, and concepts are retrieved from people’s minds.</p><ol><li><p>Iconic</p></li><li><p>Episodic</p></li><li><p>Emotional</p></li><li><p>Semantic</p></li></ol>

____ memory is the kind of memory through which names, words, and concepts are retrieved from people’s minds.

  1. Iconic

  2. Episodic

  3. Emotional

  4. Semantic

Semantic

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<p>The idea of involvement in the context of consumer decision-making refers to how:</p><ol><li><p>a person will use a product or service</p></li><li><p>much importance accompanies the choice of a product</p></li><li><p>an individual’s past experience with a product makes the person more aware about it</p></li><li><p>the consumer first heard about a product or brand</p></li></ol>

The idea of involvement in the context of consumer decision-making refers to how:

  1. a person will use a product or service

  2. much importance accompanies the choice of a product

  3. an individual’s past experience with a product makes the person more aware about it

  4. the consumer first heard about a product or brand

much importance accompanies the choice of a product

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<p>Which of the following serves as a solution to a simple consumption problem and occurs in settings where a decision isn’t involving?</p><ol><li><p>Extended problem solving</p></li><li><p>Habit</p></li><li><p>Conversion</p></li><li><p>Brand loyalty</p></li></ol>

Which of the following serves as a solution to a simple consumption problem and occurs in settings where a decision isn’t involving?

  1. Extended problem solving

  2. Habit

  3. Conversion

  4. Brand loyalty

Habit

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<p>Two bases in consumer behavior are ___.</p><ol><li><p>psychological and social</p></li><li><p>formal and informal</p></li><li><p>predictable and non-predictable</p></li><li><p>accounting and real estate</p></li></ol>

Two bases in consumer behavior are ___.

  1. psychological and social

  2. formal and informal

  3. predictable and non-predictable

  4. accounting and real estate

psychological and social

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<p>The set of brands that comes to mind when a category is mentioned is referred to as _____.</p><ol><li><p>an external search</p></li><li><p>conversion</p></li><li><p>cognitive dissonance</p></li><li><p>an evoked set</p></li></ol>

The set of brands that comes to mind when a category is mentioned is referred to as _____.

  1. an external search

  2. conversion

  3. cognitive dissonance

  4. an evoked set

an evoked set

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<p>A person’s standing in American society is often based on social stratification, which reflects the systematic inequalities within that society regarding:</p><ol><li><p>caste and gender</p></li><li><p>cultural engagement and emotional intelligence</p></li><li><p>wealth, power, education, and status</p></li><li><p>religious beliefs, morals, and values</p></li></ol>

A person’s standing in American society is often based on social stratification, which reflects the systematic inequalities within that society regarding:

  1. caste and gender

  2. cultural engagement and emotional intelligence

  3. wealth, power, education, and status

  4. religious beliefs, morals, and values

wealth, power, education, and status

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<p>Which of the following is stratification based on?</p><ol><li><p>Political beliefs</p></li><li><p>Emotional intelligence</p></li><li><p>Religious beliefs</p></li><li><p>Income</p></li></ol>

Which of the following is stratification based on?

  1. Political beliefs

  2. Emotional intelligence

  3. Religious beliefs

  4. Income

Income

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<p>_____ refers to when consumers change information in a positive way to favor a particular brand with which they have an emotional connection.</p><ol><li><p>A need state</p></li><li><p>Cognitive dissonance</p></li><li><p>Predecisional distortion</p></li><li><p>Stratification</p></li></ol>

_____ refers to when consumers change information in a positive way to favor a particular brand with which they have an emotional connection.

  1. A need state

  2. Cognitive dissonance

  3. Predecisional distortion

  4. Stratification

Predecisional distortion

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<p>In the world of advertising, culture is seen as:</p><ol><li><p>people’s rules and regulations</p></li><li><p>the total way of life of a people</p></li><li><p>a sense of morality in society</p></li><li><p>the spiritual beliefs of people</p></li></ol>

In the world of advertising, culture is seen as:

  1. people’s rules and regulations

  2. the total way of life of a people

  3. a sense of morality in society

  4. the spiritual beliefs of people

the total way of life of a people

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<p>____ are groups of consumers who feel a commonality and a shared purpose attached to a consumer good or service.</p><ol><li><p>Brand ambassadors</p></li><li><p>Trend setters</p></li><li><p>Trade channels</p></li><li><p>Brand communities</p></li></ol>

____ are groups of consumers who feel a commonality and a shared purpose attached to a consumer good or service.

  1. Brand ambassadors

  2. Trend setters

  3. Trade channels

  4. Brand communities

Brand communities

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<p>The concept of cognitive dissonance is more commonly referred to as:</p><ol><li><p>advertising clutter</p></li><li><p>buyer’s remorse</p></li><li><p>variety seeking</p></li><li><p>a need state</p></li></ol>

The concept of cognitive dissonance is more commonly referred to as:

  1. advertising clutter

  2. buyer’s remorse

  3. variety seeking

  4. a need state

buyer’s remorse

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<p>Need recognition, information search and alternative evaluation, purchase, and postpurchase use and evaluation represent the four stages of the:</p><ol><li><p>creation of brands</p></li><li><p>integrated brand promotion process</p></li><li><p>consumer decision-making process</p></li><li><p>cultural branding method</p></li></ol>

Need recognition, information search and alternative evaluation, purchase, and postpurchase use and evaluation represent the four stages of the:

  1. creation of brands

  2. integrated brand promotion process

  3. consumer decision-making process

  4. cultural branding method

consumer decision-making process

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<p>Maria decides to make herself her morning cup of juice. However, she realizes that she’s run out, which leaves her feeling discontent and wanting juice. This example relates with ____.</p><ol><li><p>a need state</p></li><li><p>cognitive dissonance</p></li><li><p>an evoked set</p></li><li><p>stratification</p></li></ol>

Maria decides to make herself her morning cup of juice. However, she realizes that she’s run out, which leaves her feeling discontent and wanting juice. This example relates with ____.

  1. a need state

  2. cognitive dissonance

  3. an evoked set

  4. stratification

a need state

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<p>A(n) ___ arises when a consumer’s desired state of affairs is different from one’s actual state of affairs.</p><ol><li><p>evoked state</p></li><li><p>need state</p></li><li><p>consideration set</p></li><li><p>top-of-mind awareness</p></li></ol>

A(n) ___ arises when a consumer’s desired state of affairs is different from one’s actual state of affairs.

  1. evoked state

  2. need state

  3. consideration set

  4. top-of-mind awareness

need state

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<p>___ can tap into information that has accumulated in one’s memory as a result of repeated advertising exposure.</p><ol><li><p>Involvement</p></li><li><p>Stratification</p></li><li><p>An internal search</p></li><li><p>A life-stage variable</p></li></ol>

___ can tap into information that has accumulated in one’s memory as a result of repeated advertising exposure.

  1. Involvement

  2. Stratification

  3. An internal search

  4. A life-stage variable

An internal search

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<p>Which of the following modes of consumer decision-making involves low involvement and low experience?</p><ol><li><p>Limited problem solving</p></li><li><p>habit or variety seeking</p></li><li><p>Extended problem solving</p></li><li><p>Brand loyalty</p></li></ol>

Which of the following modes of consumer decision-making involves low involvement and low experience?

  1. Limited problem solving

  2. habit or variety seeking

  3. Extended problem solving

  4. Brand loyalty

Limited problem solving

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<p>Once consumers decide that they need something, what is the first step they take as they begin to think about a product purchase?</p><ol><li><p>Use an external search process</p></li><li><p>Conduct an internal search for information</p></li><li><p>Use an alternative evaluation process</p></li><li><p>Determine the degree of cognitive dissonance</p></li></ol>

Once consumers decide that they need something, what is the first step they take as they begin to think about a product purchase?

  1. Use an external search process

  2. Conduct an internal search for information

  3. Use an alternative evaluation process

  4. Determine the degree of cognitive dissonance

Conduct an internal search for information

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<p>Which of the following is a difference between brand loyalty and a habit?</p><ol><li><p>Habit involves low involvement, whereas brand loyalty involves high involvement</p></li><li><p>Brand loyalty is not based on emotional connections, whereas habit is based on emotional connections</p></li><li><p>Brand loyalty can be easily disrupted with skillful advertisement, whereas habit cannot be disrupted with advertisements</p></li><li><p>Unlike brand loyalty, habit is based a conscious commitment to find the brand each time the consumer purchases from the category</p></li></ol>

Which of the following is a difference between brand loyalty and a habit?

  1. Habit involves low involvement, whereas brand loyalty involves high involvement

  2. Brand loyalty is not based on emotional connections, whereas habit is based on emotional connections

  3. Brand loyalty can be easily disrupted with skillful advertisement, whereas habit cannot be disrupted with advertisements

  4. Unlike brand loyalty, habit is based a conscious commitment to find the brand each time the consumer purchases from the category

Habit involves low involvement, whereas brand loyalty involves high involvement

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<p>A _____ is a core idea that frames an ambition or aspiration for a brand that will be relevant to target audiences over time.</p><ol><li><p>brand extension</p></li><li><p>brand orientation</p></li><li><p>brand initial</p></li><li><p>brand platform</p></li></ol>

A _____ is a core idea that frames an ambition or aspiration for a brand that will be relevant to target audiences over time.

  1. brand extension

  2. brand orientation

  3. brand initial

  4. brand platform

brand platform

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<p>____ is a term that advertisers created in the mid-1960s to refer to a form of research that emphasizes the understanding of consumers’ activities, interests, and opinions.</p><ol><li><p>Demographics</p></li><li><p>Geodemographics</p></li><li><p>Psychographics</p></li><li><p>Micrographics</p></li></ol>

____ is a term that advertisers created in the mid-1960s to refer to a form of research that emphasizes the understanding of consumers’ activities, interests, and opinions.

  1. Demographics

  2. Geodemographics

  3. Psychographics

  4. Micrographics

Psychographics

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<p>The top of the strategic planning triangle is ____, as it relates to customers.</p><ol><li><p>specification of the brand’s history</p></li><li><p>identification and specification of the target segment</p></li><li><p>identification of the various headlines that may be deployed as part of the campaigns</p></li><li><p>specification of ideas</p></li></ol>

The top of the strategic planning triangle is ____, as it relates to customers.

  1. specification of the brand’s history

  2. identification and specification of the target segment

  3. identification of the various headlines that may be deployed as part of the campaigns

  4. specification of ideas

identification and specification of the target segment

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<p>A major criterion to consider during segment selection is the _____, or the companies that are vying for that segment’s business.</p><ol><li><p>ad clutter</p></li><li><p>business market</p></li><li><p>competitive field</p></li><li><p>niche market</p></li></ol>

A major criterion to consider during segment selection is the _____, or the companies that are vying for that segment’s business.

  1. ad clutter

  2. business market

  3. competitive field

  4. niche market

competitive field

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<p>What does “T” stand for in the term STP marketing?</p><ol><li><p>Tangible</p></li><li><p>Technology</p></li><li><p>Target</p></li><li><p>Territory</p></li></ol>

What does “T” stand for in the term STP marketing?

  1. Tangible

  2. Technology

  3. Target

  4. Territory

Target

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<p>A characteristic that ____ share is that their brand preferences are still under development.</p><ol><li><p>variety seekers</p></li><li><p>brand-freaks</p></li><li><p>heavy users</p></li><li><p>emergent consumers</p></li></ol>

A characteristic that ____ share is that their brand preferences are still under development.

  1. variety seekers

  2. brand-freaks

  3. heavy users

  4. emergent consumers

emergent consumers

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<p>In STP marketing, the term____ refers to an attempt to give a brand a certain meaning relative to its competitors.</p><ol><li><p>segmentation</p></li><li><p>redistribution</p></li><li><p>positioning</p></li><li><p>targeting</p></li></ol>

In STP marketing, the term____ refers to an attempt to give a brand a certain meaning relative to its competitors.

  1. segmentation

  2. redistribution

  3. positioning

  4. targeting

positioning

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<p>(Scenario 6-1) According to the information provided here, Gillette has identified market segments along lines.</p><ol><li><p>benefit</p></li><li><p>demographic</p></li><li><p>geographic</p></li><li><p>usage pattern</p></li></ol>

(Scenario 6-1) According to the information provided here, Gillette has identified market segments along lines.

  1. benefit

  2. demographic

  3. geographic

  4. usage pattern

demographic

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<p>Which system has identified many market segments based on zip codes and the personal characteristics of their residents, creating a well-known tool for geodemographic segmentation?</p><ol><li><p>Thorson and Moore’s model</p></li><li><p>PRIZM</p></li><li><p>SIC Codes</p></li><li><p>VALS</p></li></ol>

Which system has identified many market segments based on zip codes and the personal characteristics of their residents, creating a well-known tool for geodemographic segmentation?

  1. Thorson and Moore’s model

  2. PRIZM

  3. SIC Codes

  4. VALS

PRIZM

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<p>What does the acronym STP mean?</p><ol><li><p>Sales, Target, Product</p></li><li><p>Sell To People</p></li><li><p>Segmenting, Targeting, Positioning</p></li><li><p>Sell The Product</p></li></ol>

What does the acronym STP mean?

  1. Sales, Target, Product

  2. Sell To People

  3. Segmenting, Targeting, Positioning

  4. Sell The Product

Segmenting, Targeting, Positioning

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<p>What is niche marketing?</p><ol><li><p>A relatively small group of consumers within a segment that has a distinctive set of needs or seeks very specific benefits</p></li><li><p>A large group of heavy users who are loyal to a brand because it provides value at a relatively low price</p></li><li><p>A market segment that is served by many firms and is characterized by high levels of competition</p></li><li><p>A market segment that is characterized by high sales volumes and low prices</p></li></ol>

What is niche marketing?

  1. A relatively small group of consumers within a segment that has a distinctive set of needs or seeks very specific benefits

  2. A large group of heavy users who are loyal to a brand because it provides value at a relatively low price

  3. A market segment that is served by many firms and is characterized by high levels of competition

  4. A market segment that is characterized by high sales volumes and low prices

A relatively small group of consumers within a segment that has a distinctive set of needs or seeks very specific benefits

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<p>Climate, topography, community size, and national region have been found to make dramatic differences in consumption, including habits involving eating and food preparation, entertainment, and recreation. This is the basis of ____ segmentation.</p><ol><li><p>psychographic</p></li><li><p>commitment-level-based</p></li><li><p>geographic</p></li><li><p>demographic</p></li></ol>

Climate, topography, community size, and national region have been found to make dramatic differences in consumption, including habits involving eating and food preparation, entertainment, and recreation. This is the basis of ____ segmentation.

  1. psychographic

  2. commitment-level-based

  3. geographic

  4. demographic

geographic

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<p>Effective positioning strategies should be linked to the ____ offered by the brand.</p><ol><li><p>history</p></li><li><p>substantive benefits</p></li><li><p>sale</p></li><li><p>drama</p></li></ol>

Effective positioning strategies should be linked to the ____ offered by the brand.

  1. history

  2. substantive benefits

  3. sale

  4. drama

substantive benefits

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<p>(Scenario 63) The information provided says that Keds was trying to “turn around a long-term slide” in its shoe business, and that “for years, it has depended on its image as the women’s no-frills summer shoe.” Obviously, things had changed and what Keds needed was a change in its once-successful strategy and identity to meet new market conditions. This change in strategy is called:</p><ol><li><p>internal consistency</p></li><li><p>self-expressive marketing</p></li><li><p>repositioning</p></li><li><p>business-to-business marketing</p></li></ol>

(Scenario 63) The information provided says that Keds was trying to “turn around a long-term slide” in its shoe business, and that “for years, it has depended on its image as the women’s no-frills summer shoe.” Obviously, things had changed and what Keds needed was a change in its once-successful strategy and identity to meet new market conditions. This change in strategy is called:

  1. internal consistency

  2. self-expressive marketing

  3. repositioning

  4. business-to-business marketing

repostitioning

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<p>Scenario 6-5</p><p>Madison State University has a reputation for having a powerful intercollegiate coed bowling team. Seating in the campus bowling alley only allows for 400 fans to attend their matches. Long lines for seats have formed in the past, with many fans leaving disappointed because they could not get a ticket. As a result, the school’s administrators decided to institute a “priority seating” plan in which fans would be given access to advance tickets based on the following schedule:</p><ul><li><p>”Lanemaster Club” $10,000 annual donation to the bowling program guaranteed free box seats to any match (100 seats total)</p></li><li><p>“Strike Club” $1,000 annual donation to the bowling program guaranteed free bleacher seats to any match (100 seats total)</p></li><li><p>“Kingpin Club” participates in local recreation bowling leagues guaranteed bleacher seats for $10.00 to any match (100 seats total)</p></li><li><p>“Alleycat Club” students who have maintained a 3.9 GPA or better guaranteed bleacher seats for $1.00 to any match (100 seats total)</p></li></ul><p></p><p>Based on the planned schedule described here, students who have maintained a 3.9 GPA would be described as one of the bowling team’s:</p><ol><li><p>nonuser groups</p></li><li><p>positioning strategies</p></li><li><p>target segments</p></li><li><p>diverse markets</p></li></ol>

Scenario 6-5

Madison State University has a reputation for having a powerful intercollegiate coed bowling team. Seating in the campus bowling alley only allows for 400 fans to attend their matches. Long lines for seats have formed in the past, with many fans leaving disappointed because they could not get a ticket. As a result, the school’s administrators decided to institute a “priority seating” plan in which fans would be given access to advance tickets based on the following schedule:

  • ”Lanemaster Club” $10,000 annual donation to the bowling program guaranteed free box seats to any match (100 seats total)

  • “Strike Club” $1,000 annual donation to the bowling program guaranteed free bleacher seats to any match (100 seats total)

  • “Kingpin Club” participates in local recreation bowling leagues guaranteed bleacher seats for $10.00 to any match (100 seats total)

  • “Alleycat Club” students who have maintained a 3.9 GPA or better guaranteed bleacher seats for $1.00 to any match (100 seats total)

Based on the planned schedule described here, students who have maintained a 3.9 GPA would be described as one of the bowling team’s:

  1. nonuser groups

  2. positioning strategies

  3. target segments

  4. diverse markets

target segments

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<p>Location is most related to ____ segmentation.</p><ol><li><p>geographic</p></li><li><p>psychographic</p></li><li><p>competitive</p></li><li><p>demographic</p></li></ol>

Location is most related to ____ segmentation.

  1. geographic

  2. psychographic

  3. competitive

  4. demographic

geographic

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98
<p>(Scenario 6-4) A small group of customers have mentioned that they would like to browse through several varieties of cactus, so the Garretts have decided to devote a small corner exclusively to rare cacti. These customers constitute an example of:</p><ol><li><p>market niche</p></li><li><p>psychographic segmentation</p></li><li><p>geographic segmentation</p></li><li><p>demographic segmentation</p></li></ol>

(Scenario 6-4) A small group of customers have mentioned that they would like to browse through several varieties of cactus, so the Garretts have decided to devote a small corner exclusively to rare cacti. These customers constitute an example of:

  1. market niche

  2. psychographic segmentation

  3. geographic segmentation

  4. demographic segmentation

market niche

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99
<p>For most products and services, some users will purchase much more, and more frequently, than others. These consumers are called _____.</p><ol><li><p>lead users</p></li><li><p>switchers</p></li><li><p>emergent consumers</p></li><li><p>variety seekers</p></li></ol>

For most products and services, some users will purchase much more, and more frequently, than others. These consumers are called _____.

  1. lead users

  2. switchers

  3. emergent consumers

  4. variety seekers

lead users

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100
<p>(Scenario 6-5)</p><p>A group of about 30 students who are roommates and friends of the team members—many are casual bowlers themselves—have attended every match for nearly three years. These students would best be described as:</p><ol><li><p>competitive users</p></li><li><p>emergent consumers</p></li><li><p>heavy users</p></li><li><p>variety seekers.</p></li></ol>

(Scenario 6-5)

A group of about 30 students who are roommates and friends of the team members—many are casual bowlers themselves—have attended every match for nearly three years. These students would best be described as:

  1. competitive users

  2. emergent consumers

  3. heavy users

  4. variety seekers.

heavy users

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