AP World Chapter 7 Review

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American Web


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World History

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43 Terms

American Web

a term used to describe the network of trade that linked parts of the pre-Columbian Americas; although less intense and complete than the Afro-Eurasian trade networks, this web nonetheless provided a means of exchange for luxury goods and ideas over large areas

Black Death

the name given to the massive epidemic that swept Eurasia in the 14th century CE; it may have been bubonic plague, anthrax, or a collection of epidemic diseases


the largest Buddhist monument ever built, Borobudur is a mountainous ten-level monument with an elaborate carving program, probably built in the 9th century CE by the Sailendras rulers of central Java; it is an outstanding example of cultural exchange and syncretism

Bubonic Plague

a highly fatal disease transmitted by fleas; it devastated the Mediterranean world between 534 and 750 CE and again in the period 1346-1350 CE

Ghana, Mali, Songhay

a series of important states that developed in western and central Sudan in the period 500-1600 CE in response to the economic opportunities of trans-Saharan trade (especially control of gold production)

Great Zimbabwe

a powerful state in the African interior that apparently emerged from the growing trade in gold to the East African coast; flourished between 1250 and 1350 CE

Ibn Battuta

a famous Muslim traveler who visited much of the Islamic world in the 14th century and wrote a major account of what he saw

Indian Ocean Trading Network

the world’s largest sea-based system of communication and exchange before 1500 CE, Indian Ocean commerce stretched from southern China to eastern Africa and included not only the exchange of luxury and bulk goods but also the exchange of ideas and crops

Jie People

a nomadic people who controlled much of northern China in the 3rd and 4th centuries; many converted to Buddhism


speakers of Austronesian languages from what is now Indonesia who became major traders in Southeast Asia and Madagascar


alternating wind currents that blew eastward across the Indian Ocean in the summer and westward in the winter, facilitating trade

Oasis Cities of Central Asia

cities such as Merv, Samarkand, Khotan, and Dunhuang that became centers of trans-Eurasian trade


professional merchants among the Aztecs


a kingdom of central Java that flourished from the 8th century to the 10th century CE; noted for being deeply influenced by Indian culture

Sand Roads

a term used to describe the routes of the trans-Saharan trade in Africa

Silk Roads

land-based trade routes that linked Eurasia


a Malay kingdom that dominated the Straits of Malacca between 670 and 1025 CE; noted for its creation of a native/Indian hybrid culture


from the Arabic term for “land of black people,” a large region of West Africa that became part of a major exchange circuit

Swahili Civilization

an East African civilization that emerged in the 8th century CE from a blending of Bantu, Islamic, and other Indian Ocean trade elements

Third-Wave Civilization

civilizations that emerged between 500 and 1500 CE and were typified by intensifying trade networks

Trans-Saharan Slave Trade

a fairly small-scale trade that developed in the 12th century CE, exporting West African slaves captured in raids across the Sahara for sale mostly as household servants in Islamic North Africa; the difficulty of traveling across the desert limited the scope of this trade


An Italian city that by 1000 CE emerged as a major center of Mediterranean trade

What were the political, social, and economic effects of trade routes?

-states can tax the trade routes and gain money for their treasury; the merchant -class can gain wealth and power; the luxury goods exchanged over the trade routes -can act as a visible sign of wealth and status for the elite; the ability to trade -opened economic opportunities for manufacturers of luxury goods

What goods, ideas, technology, and peoples traveled the Silk Roads?

-Goods-silk, cotton, porcelain, paper, horsies, hides, copper, spices, dried fruit, dyes, precious stones, glassware, jewelry, perfume, olive oil -Ideas-Buddhism, Christianity, Islam -Technology-papermaking, compass, saddles, stirrups, bridles -Peoples-Central Asian nomads, Europeans, Chinese, Asians

How did trade occur on the Silk Roads?

-merchants traveled along short segments (relay trade), stopping at towns along the way to trade goods; as they traded goods, they also facilitated the spread of technology, culture, and disease

How did the role of the Buddhist monasteries change in the oasis towns on the Silk Roads?

-Buddhist monasteries became involved in secular affairs. They received gifts from well-to-do merchants and local rulers. Begging bowls became a symbol rather than a daily activity. Sculptures and murals in the monasteries depicted musicians and acrobats as well as parties in progress.

How did Buddhist doctrines change as Buddhism traveled from India into China?

-Buddha came to be viewed as a deity, there were more bodhisattvas, and there was an emphasis on compassion and the possibility of earning merit. This is different from the more serious and austere form of Buddhism practiced in India. As Buddhism traveled on the Silk Roads, there were also examples of Greek and Zoroastrian influences.

What were the short-term and long-term effects of of the Black Death (bubonic plague) across Afro-Eurasia?

-Short-term-the plague brought a dramatic decrease in population, an economic downturn, and fear. -Long-term-the plague brought labor shortages, ended feudalism in Europe, and fostered prejudice against groups that did not suffer as much from the plague, such as European Jews and Muslims.

What technological developments helped the Indian Ocean trade be successful?

-lateen sail, Chinese junks, Arab dhows, sternpost rudders, astrolabe, compass

What were the raw materials carried within and out of Africa along the “Sand Roads”?

-Copper, salt, and dates from the Sahara. -Gold came from south of the Sahara. -The savanna grasslands immediately south of the Sahara produced grains such as millet and sorghum. -The forest areas farther south produced root and tree crops such as yams and kola nuts.

What was the most highly valued commodity from the Sahara?


What areas were connected through Indian Ocean trade?

Southeast Asia, India, China, Arabia, and East Africa

Why were ships in the Indian Ocean System better prepared for long-distance travel than the Greeks?

They were able to take advantage of the monsoon winds.

What military technologies spread on the Silk Roads?

Chariot warfare, mounted bowmen, and the stirrup

Mariners on the Indian Ocean trade network were...

Multilingual and multiethnic

One difference between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean seafaring was?

Mediterranean sailors rarely sailed far from shore.

What were the significant differences between Indian Ocean ships and those in the Mediterranean?

-lateen sails, they had pierced planks tied together, rarely used oars


the state that controlled trade, preventing a professional merchant class from emerging.


State that had the greatest control of any empire at economic exchange

What is one characteristic of Indian Cultureal Influence in South Asia?

it spread through voluntary adoption and adaptation of ideas.

The spread of the Black Death from China to Europe in the 14th century occurred when?

during an era of increased contact facilitated by the Mongol Empire.

What development between the 7th and 13th centuries increased and expanded trade in the Indian Ocean basin?

-The encouragement of maritime trade by an effective and unified Chinese state.

One important impact of the Mongol expansion across Asia and into Europe was?

increased trade along the Silk Roads.