AP Biology Test 1

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7 functions of life

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58 Terms

1

7 functions of life

  1. Made of cells

  2. Growth

  3. Reproduction

  4. Evolution

  5. Homeostasis 6.Metabolism

  6. Interact with environment

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2

Cell theory

  1. All living things are built of cells

  2. Cells are the smallest form of life

  3. Cells only repoduce by division

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3

"Glyco" and "ose"

shows that something is a sugar

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4

''ase'

Shows that something is an enzyme

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5

"lysis"

to break down usuing enzymes

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6

"Phag"

to eat

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7

Prokaryotic cell

  1. DNA is located in nucleoid

  2. Generally smaller and single Celled

  3. Generally Does not need oxygen

  4. No organelles

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8

Eukaryotic Cell

  1. DNA in Nucleus

  2. usuaully larger and multicellular

  3. needs oxygen

  4. Organelles

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Contents of a Eukaryotic cell

nucleas, organelles, cytosol, cytoskeleton, membrane

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10

Nucleus

  • Stores genetic information

  • Chromatin is the untangled form of DNA

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11

Nuclear envelope

  • Strong membrane of the nucleus

  • Contains inner membrane, outer membrane and nuclear pore

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12

Nucleolus

Source of Ribosomes

  • located inside the nucleus

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13

Plasma membrane

regulates what enters and exits the cell

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14

phagocytosis

Process in which the cell engulfs a large solid particle

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15

Ribosomes

  • Form protiens

  • Any protiens not attached to the rough ER(freefloating in cytosol) are used to synthesize protiens to be sent out of the cell

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Rough ER

  • Network of membranes with ribosomes that acts as pathway to the golgi

  • involved in Membrane manufacturing

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Smooth ER

  • Forms Lipids and detoxifies the cell

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18

Lysosome

Cells Digestive system **Extremely uncommon in plant cells

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19

Autophagy

Process of Lysosomes breaking down damaged organelles

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20

Cristae

"infoldings' of the mitochondrias inner membrane

  • involved in the final stage of producing ATP

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21

Mitochondiral matrix

inner compartment of mitochondria

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22

Golgi Apparatus(body)

packages and ships protiens

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23

Glycoprotien

A sugar attached to a protien

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24

Endomembrane system

All of the membranes within a cell

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25

Food vacoule

Collects food particles through phagocytosis

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Cilia

small harilike threads attached to cells that assist with movement

  • basically a mini version of flagella

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27

Peroxisomes

Breaks down wastes and fat

  • produces peroxids whihc is used to kill microrganisms

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Capsule

protection barrier for bacteria

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29

Desmosomes

Fastens Animal cells together into strong sheets

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Plasmodesmata

intercellular pores/bridges that connect plants cells to their neighboring cells

<p>intercellular pores/bridges that connect plants cells to their neighboring cells</p>
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31

Pili

Hairlike fibers found on bacteria allowing them to stick to surfaces

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Plastids

Creates and stores pigments, starches, and oilds used by the cell

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Extracellular matrix

Everything immediately outside the cell membrane

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collagen

Protien that gives structural support to cells(such as Skin cells)

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Tight Junction

Junctions in animal cells where membranes of neighboring cells are pressed against each other

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36

Gap junctions

Junctions in animal cells that provide cytoplasmic channels between cells

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37

Microfilament

thinnest part of cytoskeleton

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Actin

the protien that froms microfilaments

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Microtubules

hollow rods of protien that help support the cell

  • assist in cell division

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40

Centrosome

area near the nucleus where microtubules are formed and contains the centrioles

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intermediate filaments

Cytoskeltal elements that bear tension

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Centriole

From in pairs and forms spindle fibers for cell division

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Pseudopodia

Cellular extensions that allow a cell to crawl on surfaces

<p>Cellular extensions that allow a cell to crawl on surfaces</p>
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44

nuclear lamina

a netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus by supporting the nuclear envelope,

<p>a netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus by  supporting the nuclear envelope,</p>
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45

Chloroplasts

  • produce chlorophyll

  • pathway of photosynthesis contains:

  1. Stroma

  2. Garnum

  3. Thylakoids

<ul><li><p>produce chlorophyll</p></li><li><p>pathway of photosynthesis contains:</p></li></ul><ol><li><p>Stroma</p></li><li><p>Garnum</p></li><li><p>Thylakoids</p></li></ol>
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Stroma

Inner space of fluid inside the chloroplast

<p>Inner space of fluid inside the chloroplast</p>
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Granum

Stacks of thylakoids

<p>Stacks of thylakoids</p>
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48

thylakoids

Flattened and interconnected sacs in the chloroplasts

<p>Flattened and interconnected sacs in the chloroplasts</p>
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49

middle lamela

Thin layer between primary walls of plants cells that is kept together by pectin

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50

Pectin

a sticky glue like substance that allows cells to stick together

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51

Biochemistry levels of organization

  1. Atoms

  2. Molecules

  3. Compunds

  4. Cells

  5. Tissue

  6. Organs

  7. Ogran system

  8. Organism

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52

Elements of Life(first 96%)

  1. oxygen

  2. carbon

  3. hydorgen 4.Nitrogen

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Elements of Life(last 4%)

  1. phosphorus

  2. calcium

  3. sulfur

  4. potassium ** there are really 25 total elements that are essential, they are just a tiny percentage compared to the rest

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54

Bonding

WEAK BONDS

  • Hydrogen bonds, attarction between charges STRONG BONDS

  • covalent bonds, sharing electrons, stabel and forms molecules

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organic molecules

Any molecule containing carbon

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biomolecules

Large organic molecules that exist in all living things

  • AKA Macromolecules

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57

4 types of macromolcules

  1. Protiens

  2. Carbohydrates

  3. Nucleic acids

  4. Lipids

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58

4 properties of water

  1. adhesiveness

  2. heat capacity

  3. acts as a solvent

  4. density of ice

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