Enzymes and Cellular Respiration - Biology 10

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Enzyme

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Tags and Description

Biology

10th

53 Terms

1

Enzyme

Protein that speeds up a chemical reactions in a living thing by decreasing the activation energy

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2

Catalyst

Substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction

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3

Active Site

Part of an enzyme where the chemical reaction occurs

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4

Activation Energy

Energy needed to start a reaction

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5

Substrate

Reactant that enters an enzyme's active site

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6

Product

Substance produced in a chemical reaction

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7

Enzyme-Substrate Complex

Temporary complex formed when a substrate binds to its enzyme

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8

Chemical Reaction

Process where one substance changes to produce a different substances

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9

Competitive Inhibitor

Substance that reduces an enzyme's activity by entering the active site, blocking the substrate

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10

Non-Competitive Inhibitor

Substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location that's not the active site, changing its shape

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11

Optimal Temperature

Enzyme functions at neither extremely high nor low temperatures

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12

Optimal pH

Enzyme functions at neither extremely high nor low pH levels

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13

Denatured

An enzyme changes shape so it can no longer speed up a reaction

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14

Induced Fit

Model where the substrate enters the enzyme, the active site of an enzyme changes shape to better bind to the substrate

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15

Lock and Key Model

Model of the enzyme that shows the substrate fitting perfectly into the active site

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16

Purpose of Cellular Respiration

Turn consumed glucose into ATP

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17

Aerobic Respiration

Requires oxygen

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18

Anaerobic Respiration

Does not require oxygen

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19

Who performs Aerobic Respiration?

Animals, plants, and some bacteria

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20

Who performs Anaerobic Respiration?

Fungi and lactic acid fermentation in animals and some bacteria

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21

Cellular Respiration Equation

C6H12O6 + 6O2 --- 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP

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22

Cellular Respiration Equation in Words

Glucose + Oxygen --- Carbon Dioxide + Water + ATP

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23

Where are the Products of Photosynthesis in Cellular Respiration?

The Reactants

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24

Where are the Reactants of Photosynthesis in Cellular Respiration?

The Products

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25

Where does the Glucose in Cellular Respiration come from?

Consuming food for animals or making

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26

How do plants obtain Glucose?

Photosynthesis

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27

How do animals obtain Glucose?

By eating plants or animals

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28

Alcoholic Fermentation

Anaerobic process where yeasts and other microorganisms break down sugars to form carbon dioxide and ethanol

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29

Lactic Acid Fermentation

Anaerobic process breaking down carbohydrates that produces lactic acid

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30

Most Efficient Respiration Type

Aerobic

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31

Why do muscles burn when exerting energy?

With not enough oxygen reaching the muscles to make energy, the body must switch to anaerobic respiration, which produces the burning lactic acid

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32

What process does Anaerobic and Aerobic Respiration have in common?

Glycolysis

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33

Which respiration processes do humans do?

When needed, humans can do anaerobic respiration, but mostly do aerobic respiration

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34

Reactants of Glycolysis

Glucose

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35

Products of Glycolysis

2 Pyruvate, NADH, and 2 ATP

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36

What happens to the 2 Pyruvate after Glycolysis?

The Pyruvate is turned into Acetyl-CoA for the Krebs Cycle

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37

What happens to the NADH after Glycolysis?

NADH moves on to the electron transport chain

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38

Where does Glycolysis occur?

The Cytoplasm

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39

What organisms do the Krebs Cycle?

Plants, animals, and some bacteria

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40

Krebs Cycle Reactants

Acetyle-CoA with Oxygen

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41

Krebs Cycle Products

2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, and Water

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42

What are NADH and FADH2 used for?

NADH and FADH2 move on to the electron transport chain

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43

Where does the Krebs Cycle occur?

The Matrix of the Mitochondria

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44

What organisms do the Electron Transport Chain?

Plants and Animals

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45

Electron Transport Chain Reactants

NADH, FADH2, Hydrogen Protons, ADP, and Oxygen

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46

Electron Transport Chain

Chain of proteins where electrons move across powering the creation of a concentration gradient which pushes protons through the ATP-Synthase

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47

How much ATP does the Electron Transport Chain generate?

0

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48

How much ATP does Chemiosmosis generate?

32 - 34

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49

Electron Transport Chain Final Electron Acceptor

Oxygen

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50

What does the Electron Transport Chain do to Electrons?

Breaks the large amounts of free-energy into smaller parts to be released in a more manageable way

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51

Chemiosmosis

Protons moving from the Matrix to the Intermembrane Space, with the power of electrons, to then go through ATP-Synthase

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52

Carbon Sinks

The ocean, atmosphere, soil, and plantsCa

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53

Carbon Sources

Burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, volcanic eruptions, and respiration

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