BI 260 Exam 2

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3 sponge body types

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3 sponge body types

asconoid (simple tube), syconoid (folded on itself), leuconoid (very complex)

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  • small with similar apendages

  • first antenae are used to move and swim

  • common and significant in plankton pop

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  • barnacles look like mollusks becasue bodies are envlosed in calcareous plates

  • featery appendages filter water

  • filter feeders

  • very spacific habitat preferences

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Malacostraca, crustacea

  • curved bodies

  • appendages specialized to function

  • found in shore debris seaweek, burrowing, or living amongst the plankton

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Malacostraca, crustacea

  • similar to amphipoda

  • non specialized legs

  • body is flat

  • often parasites of fish

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Malacostraca, crustacea

  • krill/euphasids

  • head is fused with body segments to form carapace tat covers anterior half of body armor

  • filter feeders

    • diatoms and other plankton

  • common in polar waters

  • supports polar food webs

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3 subclasses of gastropods

prosobranchia, pulmonata, opisthobranchia

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4 lifestyles of polychaeta

crawling: developed eyes, backstroke form of movement.

burrowing: use muscles to burrow into sediments, occupy fixed burrows or make their own

tube dwelling: form tube and live entire life there, some may lose some metamerism, create tube using mucus and other secretions.

pelagic: can swim to an extent.

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Arthropods, Protostone, Bilateria

Defining Characteristics

  • head and thorax and be fused (cephalothorax)

  • head as five pairs of appendages

    • two antennae, mandible (jaw), two pairs of maxillae

  • have a larval form (nauplius)

  • three pairs of appendages and one medial eye


  • filter feeding is common/often scavengers

  • stomach grinds the good, and is connected to digestive gland (absorb nutrients)

  • blood is free flowing (open circulatory system)

Brain and Behavior

  • Nervous system

  • small simple brains, sensory organs=ventral nerve cord (centralized, ladder-like)

  • have compound eyes, a keen sense of smell, and statocysts (marble apparatus?) for balance

  • visual and olfactory signals for courtship and contests

  • can form societies (eusocial)


  • sexes are seperate (gonochoristic)

  • male uses special appendages to directly transfer sperm

  • Females will carry eggs with them using pleopods

  • develop into nauplis larvae

Malacostraca (Decapoda, Euphasiacaeda, Copepoda, Thecostraca

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flattened along the anterior/posterior axis, gills are thoracic, and can have large eyes. can be pelagic or benthic.

accomplished burrowers (malacostraca)

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Annelida (3 orders)

all have metameric segmentation (one segment is similar to the next) and cephalization.

Hirudinea (leeches) Oligochaeta and Polychaeta

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Sea anemones and corals.

Defining Characteristics

  • Have mesentary partitions to increase surface area.

  • Lots of symbionts, including zooxanthellae and clown fish.

  • some anemones move their tentacles to optimize exposure to sunlight for their photosynthetic symbionts.

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Anthropoda, Chelicerata(subphyla) (2 classes)

Merostomata, Pycnogonida (sea spiders)

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Crustacea (lots of classes)

Defining Characteristics

  • characterized by 5 sets of head appendages: 1st antennae set, 2nd antennae set, mandible set, 1st maxillae set, 2nd maxillae set.

  • a thorax and a abdomen segmented; can be fused

  • an oculi larvae

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Commonly known as sea squirts or tunicates.

Defining Characteristics

  • intertidal and tidal zones, the 'tunic' is made of cellulose, has 2 openings, one inhalant and one exhalant that filter the water over a mucus-covered basket and also the gills.

  • The mucus is produced by an endostyle and spread by cilia. Mucus catches food particles.

  • Larvae are pelagic, the adults are attached to the bottom(Sessile) (Urochordata)

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sea stars. exclusively saltwater. bottom dweller.

Defining Characteristics

  • Has an internal skeleton of calcareous ossicles inside the soft tissue.

  • Water vascular system, used to create suction cup from tube feet, water comes in through madreporite.

  • oral and aboral surfaces.

  • gastrovascular glands and gonads in all arms.

  • eat bivalves by using suction cup feet to slowly pry apart the shells.

  • Regenerative power as long as part of central disc is included.


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Looks like a tube, open on one end.

Eats lobates (ctenophores)

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Protostomes and Deuterostomes

Defining Characteristics

  • three tissue layers: endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm

    • mesoderm allows for body cavity (coelom)

  • Specialized tissue/cells that produce organs

  • Bilateral symmetry

  • Early specialization of blastula (hollow ball of cells)

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Two clades within Bilateral

Protostomes and Deuterostomes

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“mouth first”

  • cell cleavage occurs through spiral cleavage

  • masses of mesoderm split to form body cavity

  • blastopore (ollow opening) developes into the mouth

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1 of 2 Protostone

Defining Characteristics

  • all molting animals (cuticle)

    • process is called ecdysis

  • largest group in animal kingdom (insects, spiders, crustaceans)

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Ecdysozea, Protostone

Defining Characteristics

  • segmented bodies with jointed appendages

  • developed exoskeleton

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“mouth second”

  • cell cleavage occurs from radial cleavage

  • folds of archenteron form mouth

  • blastopore becomes anus

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Porifera vs Bilateral


  • no symmetry

  • no tissue just cells


  • three tissue layers: endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm

  • Specialized tissue/cells that produce organs

  • Bilateral symmetry


  • three tissue layers: endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm

    • mesoderm allows for body cavity (coelom)

  • Specialized tissue/cells that produce organs

  • Bilateral symmetry

  • Early specialization of blastula (hollow ball of cells)

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Malacostraca, Crustacea

Defining Characteristics

  • have 5 pairs of legs (pereiopods)

  • front legs (cheliped) is specialized to have claws

  • 3 pairs of maxillipeds (filtering food)


  • scavenger

  • elongated abdomens


  • life outside the water

  • rounder stomachs

  • also scavengers

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Protostomes, Bilateral

Defining Characteristics

  • lophophore feeding device

    • U shaped ring of tenticles covered with cilia used t capture small food and oxygen

  • trochophore larva

    • free swimming larvae

    • band of cilia allows them to swim

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snails, clams, octopuses

Defining Characteristics

  • Soft velvety body

  • covered by manltle (organ that secretes the shell)

  • small teeth (radula) used to feed

  • ventral muscular foot


  • have digestive glands

    • release digestive enzymes

  • Grazers

    • some can take up chloroplasts/organelle from what they are grazing and can then photosynthesis (kleptoplasty)

  • Filtered and sorted from the water using silica (suspension feeding)

  • crystaline style releases enzyme in the stomach

Body Systems

  • circulatory cystems that carries nutrients and oxygen

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6 Major groups of mollusks

Polyplacophora, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda, Scopophoda, Cephelopoda

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Mollusc, Lophotropozoa

  • coile mass of vital organs enclosed by shells

  • ventricle creeping foot

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Mollusc, Lophotropozoa

  • laterally compressed

  • shell with two parts (valves)

  • uses gills to feed

  • abductor muscles to close valve

    • for protection: pysical and from drying out


  • external/braodcast spawning

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Mollusc, Lophotropozoa

  • no hard protective shell

  • all predators

  • foot= arms and tentacles with suckers to capture pray and movement

  • ink sac

  • have siphon (can be used to move by jet propulsion)


  • two-part beak (rostrum)- functions as a bird beak

  • predator


  • internal

  • male deposits spamatophore

Body System

  • closed circulatory system, blood remains in vessels

  • flow to tentacles and brain

  • Brain

    • sense organs/tactiles

    • input info from surrounding/output behavior

  • Eyes

    • convergent evolution: similar human eyes that are camera-like and can focus

    • focus by moving lens back and forth

    • no fibers between lens and photoreceptor=no blind spot

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Mollusc, Lophotropozoa

  • eight overlapping shell plates

  • shallow, hard botton environments


  • external/braodcast spawning

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Mollusc, Lophotropozoa

  • deep water environments

  • one single cone like shell


  • external/braodcast spawning

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Mollusc, Lophotropozoa

  • tusk shell- looks like an elephant tusk

  • sandy muddy environments


  • use scent to find prey or sit and wait

  • shoot radular tooth (looks like harpoon) and poisons (conotoxins) their prey


  • external/braodcast spawning

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Deuterostomes, Bilateria (sister to echtodermata)

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Echinodermata, Deuterosome, Bilateria

sea stars

Defining Characteristics

  • tube feet protrude from ambulacral grooves on oral surface

  • carnivorous: bivalves, snails, barnacles

  • use feet to pry open shells

  • excrete stomach to liquify and capture prey

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Echinodermata, Deuterosome, Bilateria

Brittle star, basket stars

Defining Characteristics

  • swift, snowflake movements with arms

  • variety of feeding: predation, deposit-feeding, scavenging, suspension feeding

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Echinodermata, Deuterosome, Bilateria

sea urchins, sand dollars

Defining Characteristics

  • rocky substrate/kelp forests

  • endoskeleton is called a test with movable spines

  • five rows of ambulacral grooves on out surface

  • move by their spines and their tube feet

  • Aristotle lantern (mouth part)

  • herbivorous (detritous, suspension feeding, pradtion)

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Echinodermata, Deuterosome, Bilateria

Sea cucumber

Defining characteristics

  • lies on one side where tube feet are used to move

  • branched tenticles for deposit and suspension feeding

  • Eviseration: shoot out their guts to escape predators and then regenerate them

  • Pelagotheria is the exception… it can swim

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Echinodermata, Deuterosome, Bilateria

feather stars, sea lilies

defining characteristics

  • arms have side branches with tiny tube feed that secrete mucus to capture food

  • some are sedentary (sea lilies) and others can crawl (feather stars)

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Five Major Groups of Echinodermata

Asteroidea, Ophiuroidea, Echinoidea, Holothuroidea, Crinoidea

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includes Urochordata, Cepaholchordata, Vertebrate

Defining Characteristics (synapomorphies- similarities within all subgroups)

  • single hollow nerve chord that runs along the dorsal

  • Gill or pharyngeal slits, small openings along the anterior part of the gut

  • a notochord- a flexible rod that lay between verve chors and the gut

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Deuterostome, Bilateria

Sea Star/starfish, sea urchins

“spiny skin”

Defining Characteristics

  • strictly marine and benthic

  • bilaterally symmetrical larvae, pentamerous radial symmetry (five sets of body parts around a central disc) as adults

Body System

  • one oral surface and one aboral (no head)

  • rows of podia (tube feet) and associated with ambulacral grooves

  • Endoskeletons made of calcareous ossicles from the mesodermal tissue

    • always covered by ciliated tissue

  • Water Vascular System

    • water-filled canals where water enters through the madreporite

    • tube feet extended when filled with water sometimes by muscular sacs (ampullae)


  • carniverous

  • everting stomach through mouth to envelope food

  • short guts

  • transported by coelomic food

  • Urchins

    • herbivores

    • suspension and deposit feeding

Brain and Behavior

  • nerve net: diffused and decentralized without cerebral ganglion

  • have sensory response


  • gonochoristic: sexes are separate

  • sexual and asexual

  • can asexually reproduce by fragmentation and regeneration

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Defining Characteristics

  • Early cell cleavage is radio cleavage

  • the body cavity (coelom) is formed by folding of the archenteron

  • blastophore become anus

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Defining Characteristics

Body System

  • gut is U shaped

  • pharynx has nermerous gills

  • notochord and dorsal verve are present in larval stages

  • filter feeders; water in through incurrent siphone and filtered in the pharynx, and expelled though the excurrent siphon


  • varies

  • Sea Squirt: class Ascidiacea) are sessile, permanently attached, chordates

  • Salps (class Thaliacea) are planktonic filter feeders

  • Larvaceans (class Larvacea) are also planktonic filter feeders;

    build gelatinous houses to trap food;

    Important contributor to marine snow

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Defining Characteristics

  • lack of a backbone

  • brackish or estuarial environments

Body System

  • Possess notochord, dorsal nerve cord, gill slits

  • Ciliary-mucous suspension feeders

  • water is driven into mouth and pharynx and out through pharyngeal gill slits

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Defining characteristics

  • have a skull (protext brain), backbone (with vertebrae), and most have jaws

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Jawless Fishes

Vertebrata, Chordata

Defining Characteristics

  • no jaw

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Vertabrata, Chordata

Hagfishes (no backbone no jaw)

Defining Characteristics

  • Have skulls

  • agnata (no jaw)


  • feed by suction

    • scavengers

Body System

  • eel-like body form/no scales

  • produces slime in mucus glands

    • defense mechanism

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Vertabrata, Chordata


defining characteristics

  • have skull, backbone, but no jaw

  • spend most of their lives as larvae buried underneath the sand


  • feed by suction

  • muscular mouth with rows of teeth

Body Systems

  • no scales

  • eel-like body form

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Vertabrata, Chordata

Defining Characteristics

  • have skulls, backbones, and a jaw

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Gnathastomata, Vertebrata, Chordata

Elasmobranchii & Holocephali

Defining Characteristics

  • skeleton made of cartilige (more flexible than bone)

  • movable jaw with ventrally located mouths

  • Placois scales rough like sandpaper

  • found in all depths, mostly shallower waters

  • som found in brackish water but rare

Body Shape/systems

  • Fusiform (torpedo shape) for fast swimming

  • Dorsoventrally compressed associated with bottom-dwelling

  • move using locomotion

    • side-to-side motion to propel it forward

  • rhythmic contractions are produced by myomeres (bands of muscles)

    • large pectoral fins lift while swimming

    • and heterocercal tail to lift the head up

    • liver full of oil to keep them buoyant

  • have a two-chambered heart Deoxygenated blood pumped from first chamber to second chamber to gills

  • Gas exchange occurs in gills

    • oxygen carried by hemoglobin in erythrocytes and is carried by arteries to capillaries to veins and back to the heart


  • Water must flow over the gills for oxygen transfer to occur

    • Some sharks are called “obligate ram ventilators”

      and must swim continuously to force water over the gills

    • Other have spiracles (an opening behind their eye)

      to pump water over their gills, or draw water in through their mouths

  • Gills are supported by cartilaginous gill arches

    • has numerous gill filaments, increasing surface area and rows of thin plates (lamellae) creating high surface area

  • CONCURRENT SYSTEM OF FLOW Oxygen in the water diffuses into blood along an oxygen gradient

    • Blood in gills flows in opposite direction to the flow of water over gills

  • Osmoregulation- Cartilaginous fishes reduce (reverse) osmosis by increasing the amount of solutes (urea) in the blood, making salt concentration close to that of seawater

    • Amount of urea in blood is controlled by kidneys; gills block the loss of urea Cartilaginous fishes are less susceptible to urea toxicity than other vertebrates

Nervous System and Regulatory Organs

  • Cartilaginous fishes also have sense organs called ampullae of Lorenzini

    that can detect weak electrical fields

    • help detect prey


  • Fertilzation is internal- male inserts claspers into the female cloaca

  • Many cartilaginous fishes are oviparous

    • Embryo enclosed in a large leathery egg case, that drops to bottom after spawning; Hatch after the parent laid the egg

    • Eggs are large, well-nourished and only a few are laid at a time

  • Some cartilaginous fishes are ovoviviparous

    • the eggs develop inside the female and she gives birth to live young

  • A few cartilaginous fishes are viviparous

    • the embryos absorb nutrients directly from the walls of the females reproductive trac


  • most are carnivores and have eclectic diets (take bites out of much largers prey)

  • some are filter feeders

    • use gill rakers to eat plankton (planktivores)

  • Food passes from mouth – pharynx – stomach – intestine – spiral valve – cloaca

    • Spiral valve of intestines increases surface area for absorption of nutrients

    • Cloaca is a common passage for digestive, excretory, and reproductive systems

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Two classes of Chondrichthyes

Elasmobranchii & Holocephali

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Chondrichthyes, Gnathastomata, Vertebrata, Chordata

Defining Characteristics

  • found in deep waters/benthic

  • one pair of gill slits and long rat like tain

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Chondrichthyes, Gnathastomata, Vertebrata, Chordata

Body Systems

  • Fusiform body slips through water

  • Heteroceral tail with upper lobe longer than lower

  • two dorsal fins paired with pectoral fins

  • 5 to 7 gill slits

  • powerful jaws with sharp pointy teeth

    • very common to lose and regrow teeth

  • variety in body plans (big/small, shape, etc)


  • Play key roles in the ecosystem as top predators and important recyclers ( i.e.,

    scavengers); loss of sharks indicates loss of ecosystem health

  • negative trend in sharks

  • changing the narrative of sharks

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Skates and rays

Chondrichthyes, Gnathastomata, Vertebrata, Chordata

Body Systems

  • dorso-ventrally flattened bodies

  • head fused to limbs

  • almost all benthic


  • excavating sediment

  • teeth grind and crush

  • filter feed mostly

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Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii

bony fishes

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Actinopterygii (ray fined fishes)

Osteichthyes, Gnathastomata, Vertebrata, Chordata

Defining Characteristics

  • protrusible- jaw with more freedom

    • suction feeding- the rapid opening of the mouth creates negative pressure sucking in water and food

  • cycloid/ctenoid scales- thin flexible overlapping scales

  • operculum (gill cover) protects the gills

  • homocercal tail with lobes of tail with same size

    • lots of diversity

  • fin membranes are supported by fin rays


  • diverse

  • fusiform= fast swimming

  • dorsoventrally flattened= bottom dwellers

  • Angulliforn= living among vegetation and eel shape

  • elongate, triangular, round= slow swimmers


  • undulatory movement creates force (thrust)

    • pelagic fish use mainly their tail for energy efficiency

  • side force is wasted energy

  • Three components of swimming: velocity, acceleration, turning

    • acceleration- strong tails, sit-and-wait predators

    • Velocity/cruisers- stiff body, mainly tail movements, and quarter moon (efficiently shaped) tails

    • Turning/manuverists- disk shape and large pectoral fins

    • Buoyancy- swim bladder to create lift using oxygen from blood

  • Lateral Line- a system of sensory organs to detect movement, pressure, vibration

    • allows them to distinguish different movements from their own


  • mouth shape can illude to what they eat

    • sharp biting teeth- open ocean

    • crushing plate- sediment

    • long snouts and mouths- small prey out of crevices

    • large mouths and gill rakers- filter feeder

  • mainly carnivorous

Respiratory System

  • use active irrigation

    • inhale water and exhale it over the gills

  • countercurrent exchange- blood and sea water running over gills move in opposite directions

    • molecules go from high to low, counter-current is more efficient

  • high surface area for gas exchange


  • schooling- well-defined groupings of fish

    • selfish herd hypothesis: prey are selfishly attempting to put someone else closer to the predator

    • dilution effect: the probability of an individual gets lower the more there are

    • confusion effects: the coordinated action confuses the predator


  • diverse reproduction habits

  • ALL oviparous (lay eggs)

  • male protects eggs

  • practice monogamy, polygamy(one male many female),polyandry(one female many males), promiscuity (many of both)

  • sequential hermaphrodism- an individual can change functional sex to another during its lifespan during its lifespan

    • Progynous-female to male

    • Protandrous- male to female

  • Size advantage hyp: Why male? favor females first since rate of fitness is higher with females at the beginning, then male rate fo change increases drastically

    • larger males have higher fitness due to competition

  • Why female first? opposite of why male. Female rate of change increases drastically the larger they are

  • Repetitive sex change: bidirectional

    • male is dom in a certain environment so stays male. joins a new group where he is not dominant so he switched back to a female

  • Simultaneous

  • competition is mainly between males

  • Alternative Reproductive Tactics (ARTs)

    • sneaker males- inconspicuous, sneak fertilization of eggs with type 1 male present

    • satellite males- remains on the periphery so he can immediately take opportunities to mate

    • Female mimicry- avoid detection by type 1 male to gain access to feamael

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Defining Characteristics

  • teeth with enamel

  • cosmid scales- large

  • fins are fleshy and has pairs

    • joined to body by one bone

  • tail is diphycercal (looks like oval fin)


  • egg develops in female = live birth

Lung Fish

  • specialized respiratory system: no trachea, but lungs are connected to the larynx and pharynx

    • first lung

  • omnivorous

  • Activation- slows its metabolism and protein waste is converted from ammonia to produce urea

Tetrapods (reptiles and mammals)

  • four-limbed vertebrate animals

  • Amniotes (early reptiles)

Defining Characteristics

  • waterproof skin for moisture loss

  • water conserving kidney to produce urea

  • costal respiration (expandin and contricticting ribs

  • amniotic eggs- eggs on land that dont dry out

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Chelonia, Squamata, Archosauria

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turtles, tortoises, terrapins


Defining Characteristics

  • bodies enclosed in carapace )shell) of dermal bone

  • reptilian legs are modified into flippers to help swim

  • have lungs located under the carapace

  • hold breath for a very long time

  • global distribution


  • carnivores or omnivoreres

    • adult green sea turtles are herbivorous

Growth and survival

  • Hatchlings have high mortality

  • grow slowly and live long times


  • reproduce in water

    • males pretty much stay in the sea while females deposits eggs on land

  • ovoviviparous

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sea snakes, marine Iguana

defining characteristics

  • bodies are laterally flattened and the tale is paddle shaped for swimming

  • tropical Indian and pacific

  • large network of branching blood vessels concentrated at the head, connecting to a single vein that goes into the brain

    • This functions to keep the brain well-oxygenated while the snake is swimming


  • mate in water

  • ovoviporpus- live young

  • oviparous- some lay eggs on land


  • carnivores in timent

  • fixed fangs and poisonous

  • smallmouth

  • cooperative hunting

Marine Iguana

Defining Characteristics

  • ingest seaweed/vegatarians

    • only lizard to get food from the sea

  • lots of salt in the body, salt glands eject excess through sneeze

  • tail is laterally flattened, undulates like a fish

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saltwater crocodiles, sea birds

saltwater crocodiles

Defining Characteristics

  • located in mangroves and estuaries

  • aggressive marine animals

Sea birds

defining caracteristics

  • have to come to shore to breath

  • mature alter, live longer, and significantly fewer chicks

    • invest a lot of energy into a single egg

    • paretnal care= several months

  • bread in colonies to protect from predators

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Sea Birds

Penguins: Sphenisciformes, Tubenoses: Procellariformes, Pelicans and relatives: Pelecaniformes, Gulls & relatives: Charadriiformes

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Penguins: Sphenisciformes

defining characteristics

  • flightless

  • have flippers

  • southern oceans in cold, polar water

  • counter current heat exchange in circulation to wings and feet

  • carnivorous

    • dive for krill and small fish

  • live in colonies

  • monogamous pairs and lay single eggs

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Tubenoses: Procellariformes

defining characteristics

  • tube-like nostrils for smelling prey

  • hooked bills for catching pray on the surface

  • spend months/years at sea

  • come on land to bread on remote places in the deep south

    • migrate to arctic to feed

  • carnivores; fish, other birds, zooplankton

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Pelicans and relatives: Pelecaniformes

defining characteristics

  • brightly colored and ornamented

  • Mainly tropical, but some species nest in Arctic and Antarctic

  • Feeding is restricted to fishes

    • Cormorants dive and pursue their prey underwater

    • Frigatebirds force other birds to give up fish in mid-air (kleptoparasitism)

  • guano accumulates in land which is high in N, P, and K

    • importance in contributors

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Gulls & relatives: Charadriiformes

defining characteristics

  • diverse

  • Predators, generally feed on small fish and zooplankton

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