Health problems of Toddlers and Preschoolers

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1 to 3 years of age


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1 to 3 years of age

What ages are the toddler period?

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

Delayed gratification Independence Self-Control Negativism

What is the developmental stage for Toddlers?

3 to 5 years of age

What ages are the Pre-School period?

Initiative vs Guilt

Initiate activities with others Inquisitive Enthusiastic learners Feel remorseful for wrong behavior Explore new things/activities

What is the developmental stage for preschoolers?


Calcium levels


Sodium levels


Chloride levels


Glucose levels


Potassium levels


Magnesium Levels


Hemoglobin levels for 2-6 year olds


Hemoglobin levels for 6-12 year olds


Hemoglobin levels for 12-18 year old boys


Hemoglobin levels for 12-18 year old girls

Direct contact: blisters, saliva, mucous, contaminated objects and surfaces

How is Chickenpox (Varicella Zoster VZV) transmitted?

Airborne: N95 mask

What type of precautions is needed for Chickenpox?

2-3 weeks, average 14-16 days

What is the incubation period of Chickenpox?

5 to 10 days

What is the duration of Chickenpox?

1 day

How long is the prodromal stage for Chickenpox?

1-2 days before eruption of lesions until all have crusted (and every last lesion has to be crusted over until its deemed safe)

What is the period of communicability for chickenpox?

Pyrexia Crust Headache Papules/vesicles Pruritus

What are clinical manifestations of chickenpox?

Airborne and contact precautions Bath/linen change daily Calamine lotion Antihistamines and Antipyretics Keep fingernails short and clean Avoid heat

How do you care for chicken pox?

Secondary bacterial infection and encephalopathy

What can be the complications for chicken pox?

Corynebacterium Diphtheria

Diphtheria is also known as?

Droplet: secretions from mucous membranes (nose, nasopharynx, skin, lesions) Direct contact

How is diphtheria transmitted

2 to 4 weeks. Must have 3 negative cultures before you are clear of it.

What is the period of communicability for diphtheria?

2 to 5 days

What is the incubation period for diphtheria?

common cold/localized symptoms Serosanguineous mucopurulent drainage Epistaxis

What are the nasal clinical manifestations for diphtheria?

Pyrexia, hoarseness, cough Retractions, dyspnea, cyanosis Airway obstruction

What are the laryngeal clinical manifestations for diphtheria?

Malaise, anorexia, sore throat, pyrexia Tachycardia Lymphadenitis (bull's neck) White/gray thick exudate covering mucous membranes Toxemia, septic, shock, death

What are the tonsillar/pharyngeal clinical manifestations for diphtheria?


Antibiotics: Penicillin G or Erythromycin

Complete Bed Rest: Prevent myocarditis

Tracheostomy for airway obstruction

Requires treatment of contacts (especially those not immunized) and carries of the disease

Can be re-infected if not vaccinated

What is the treatment and nursing care for diphtheria?

Cardiomyopathy Heart Failure Toxic Neuropathy Paralysis and Death

What are complications for diphtheria?

Fifth Disease or slapped cheek disease

Erythema Infectiosum is also known as


How is Fifth Disease transmitted?

4 to 14 days, may be up to 21 days

What is the incubation period for fifth disease?

Contagious before symptoms are present

What is the period of communicability for fifth disease?

a Teratogen

Fifth disease is considered as what to pregnant women?

Erythema on face that disappears within 1-4 days

What is stage one of Erythema Infectiosum?

Maculopapular red spots - 1 day after rash on face

Appears symmetrically

Progresses proximal to distal

May last a week or longer

What is stage two of Erythema Infectiosum?

Rash subsides but recur (heat/cold/friction)

What is stage three of Erythema Infectiosum?

Analgesics Antipyretics Anti-inflammatory Ibuprofen

What are supportive/treatment measures for Erythema Infectiosum?

Arthritis/Arthralgia Usually, self limiting

What are complications of Erythema Infectiosum?

Standard and droplet precautions

What type of precautions are taken for Erythema Infectiosum?


Exanthem Subitum is also known as

5 to 15 days

What is the incubation period for roseola?

Year round Saliva from healthy adults

How is Roseola transmitted?

Standard precautions

What type of precautions are needed for Roseola?


What is the period of communicability for Roseola?

Persistent high fever 3-7 days in child who appears well

Fever disappears as rash appears

Nonpruritic rash that lasts 1-2 days

Discrete rosy pink macular/macropapular

Appears on trunk

Neck, face, extremities

Blanches with pressure

What are some defining characteristics of Roseola?