chapter 34: animal nutrition and digestive system

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1

obligate carnivores

only eat meat

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facultative carnivores

can eat non-animal food but is best to eat mostly meat

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3

incomplete digestive tract

one opening in body cavity (gastrovascular cavity)

food and waste both go thru mouth

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4

complete digestive tract

two openings (alimentary canal)

food enters through mouth, waste exits through anus

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5

monogastric digestive system

only one stomach

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6

more than one stomach

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crop

stores food in chicken

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8

proventriculus

like human stomach, chemical digestion

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gizzard

pebbles grind food

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10

cloaca

excretes urine and feces in chickens

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11

ruminants

have four stomachs

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12

ruminants stomach cycle

grass taken to rumen → reticulum → omasum → food regurgitated to abomasum → intestine and out

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rumen and reticulum

contain prokaryotes and protists to digest cellulose fiber

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omasum

cud is regurgitated, chewed, and swallowed

removes water

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abomasum

“true stomach”

equivalent of mono gastric stomach chamber where gastric juices are secreted

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16

dentition in herbivores

incisors for clipping

premolars and molars for grinding

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dentition in carnivores

pointed incisors and enlarged canines

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18

dentition in omnivores

variety of specializations to accommodate both vegetation and meat

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19

peristalsis

two layers of muscle allow for squeeze movement of esophagus

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digestion is

extracellular

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21

beta amylase

in salivary juice, digests starch

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22

pharynx

where digestive and respiratory tract come together

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23

soft palate

closes nasopharynx in presence of food

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glottis

in larynx, produces voice

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epiglottis

opens and closes air passage depending on presence of food

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upper sphincter

separates esophagus and mouth

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lower sphincter

separates esophagus and stomach

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gastroduodenal sphincter

separates duodenum and stomach

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oblique muscle

extra layer of muscle in stomach that helps with churning

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gastric pits

deep folds in stomach

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stomach cells

lined with columnar epithelial cells + muscle/goblet cells

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parietal cells

produces HCl in stomach

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goblet cells

produce mucus, prevents HCl form making holes in stomach lining (ulcer)

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34

acid reflux

stratified squamous cells in esophagus die and are replaced with acidic columnar cells

precursor to cancer

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35

pepsin

protease, digests proteins into peptides

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chyme

mixture of digested food in stomach, small quantity passed into duodenum

neutralized by bicarbonates from pancreas

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duodenum

has pancreatic juices and liver/gallbladder juice

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villi

lined w absorption epithelial cells

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microvilli

increases surface for better absorption

creates 4,000 square feet of small intestine

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40

bile salts

emulsify fats (break into fat droplets)

expands into 4,000 square feet of small intestine

go into lymphatic vessel

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carboxypeptidase

chews proteins one amino acid at a time from carboxyl end of amino acid

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aminopeptidase

chews protein one amino acid at a time from amino terminal

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dipeptidase

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44

liver

has regenerative ability

produces bile

millions of hexagonal tubules

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gallbladder

behind the bile

concentrates bile

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pancreas

underneath stomach

produces trypsin: protein → peptides

lipase: fat droplets → glycerol and fatty acids

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pancreatic amylase

converts starch → maltose

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endocrine pancreas

produces insulin and glucagon

trypsin and chymotrypsin digest food further into smaller peptides and bicarbonate

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large intestine

gets water back from chyme in small intestine

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50

cecum

used for fermentation

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appendix

vestigial organ

used in bacterial storage

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constipation

large intestine takes too much water away

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diarrhea

large intestine doesn’t take enough water away

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54

lipid digestion

lipids emulsified by bile, form micelles

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carbohydrate digestion

amylase in mouth

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monosaccharides

glucose, fructose

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disaccharides

lactose, sucrose

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essential amino acids

not made in body, must be acquired through food

8 in adults, 9 in children

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if needed amino acids aren’t there…

… proteins are truncated

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60

fat-soluble vitamins

A, D, E, K

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water soluble vitamins

B vitamins and vitamin C

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vitamins

antioxidants

neutralize free radicals, which wear out body

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sodium

muscle contraction

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magnesium

cofactor for DNA

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calcium

signaling molecule

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phosphorous

present in DNA

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chlorine

used for HCl, which is needed to convert pepsinogen to pepsin

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potassium

maintains water balance, heartbeat

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iodine

used for thyroid activity

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iron

hemoglobin formation

can be toxic to the body

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71

chief cells

produce pepsin, secreted as pepsinogen

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protein digestion

in the stomach, pepsin breaks protein into peptides

in duodenum, trypsin, elastase, and chymotrypsin break peptides down smaller

carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase, and aminopeptidase reduce peptides to free amino acids, which are absorbed into the bloodstream through small intestines

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lipid digestion

lipases break triglycerides → monoglycerides + fatty acids

packaged into micelles, absorbed by microvilli

converted back into triglycerides, which aggregate w cholesterol, proteins, and phospholipids to form chylomicrons

chylomicrons move into a lymph capillary, which transports to rest of body

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74

carb digestion

salivary amylase

pancreatic amylase: starch → maltose

maltase: glycogen, starch → glucose

sucrase, lactase

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