FLASHCARDS FOR CHAPTER 2 AND 3 TEST 11/9

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1

polar

Water is a good solvent due to its _________ nature

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2

uneven

water is a polar molecule, which means it has an _______ distribution of charge

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3

V

water is shaped like a "_"

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4

oxygen

which has a slight - charge, oxygen or hydrogen

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5

hydrogen

which has a slight + charge, oxygen or hydrogen

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6

cohesion

what is the bonding together of like molecules to hold a substance together?

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7

adhesion

when water was sticking to the penny - water bonds to other molecules

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8

capillary action

occurs when the adhesion of the wall of plants/capillary tube is stronger than the cohesive forces of water (both are required)

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9

capillary

why roots of plants work how they do can be described by __________ action

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10

surface tension

a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid

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11

high

water has a _____ surface tension due to hydrogen bonding

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12

specific heat

the amount of heat that must be absorbed/lost for 1 g of that substance to change its temperature by 1 degree C

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13

tension water

surface ________ allows organisms to live on _______

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14

water

specific heat is important to humans during the winter in nebraska because... people are mostly made of _______ so you won't freeze because water has a high specific heat capacity

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15

heat of vaporization

the quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 g of it to be converted from the liquid to the gaseous state

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16

evaporation cooling

as liquid evaporates, the surface of the liquid that remains cools down (this is also why sweating cools the body)

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17

less

solid water is _____ dense than liquid water

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18

4

water is most dense at _ degrees C (at the bottom of every lake, no matter the time of year) (you have to know this!!!)

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19

lake turnover

water being densest at 4 degrees C causes ______ ____________

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20

nutrient

lake turnover causes n_________ movement

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21

good

water is a universal solvent but don't call it that, call it a ______ solvent

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22

polar

like dissolves like, it dissolves other polar things, this is due to its _______ nature

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23

solution

a liquid that is a completely homogeneous mixture of two or more substances

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24

solvent

dissolving agent

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25

solute

substance (stuff) being dissolved

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26

solvent solute

water mixed with koolaid, water is the ______, koolaid is the _____

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27

hydrogen ion

we call H+ a

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28

hydroxide ion

we call OH- a

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29

acid

a substance that increases the H+ (hydrogen ion) concentration of a solution

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30

base/alkaline

a substance that reduces the H+ (hydrogen ion) concentration

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31

14

on the pH scale, the numbers always add to ___

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32

10^-13

if H+ = 10^-1, then OH- = what?

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33

10

on the pH scale, 1 is __ times more acidic than 2

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34

buffer

a substance that minimizes changes in the concentration of H+ and OH- in a solution

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35

pH

buffers prevent large changes in what?

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36

carbonic

_________ acid is a good buffer

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37

hydrophobic

molecule that does not have an affinity for water... non polar, oil as an example

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38

hydrophilic

molecule that does have an affinity for water... polar

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39

transparent

how the properties of water are significant to living organisms... water is t_________ which allows aquatic plants and phytoplankton to photosynthesize

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40

polar covalent

(talking about one water molecule here): hydrogen and oxygen atoms are held together by __________ bonds

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41

polar

a water molecule is ________ because electrons are not shared equally

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42

dissolve good solvent

because of its polarity, water can __________ most substances, and because of this it is referred to as a ______ __________

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43

vaporization

when water changes from a liquid to a gas

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44

condensation

when water changes from a gas to a liquid

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45

increases

as CO2 increases, temperature __________

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46

greenhouse effect

CO2 in the atmosphere is necessary because it helps create the g____________ e_______ which makes earth habitable

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47

okay

look at your question of the day from week 11 monday (draw an atom that's not an isotope) because it is a quiz question!

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48

cafe naps

what acronym can you use to remember the trace elements?

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49

sulfur

which trace element is part of SOME amino acids (which make up proteins) and allows bonds to form within the amino acids, which influence the protein's shape

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50

sodium

which trace element is found in SOME amino acids AND is necessary for nerve impulses

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51

iron

which trace element is the oxygen binding component of blood?

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52

calcium

which trace element is a component of bones and teeth, as well as is important for synaptic transmission?

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53

phosphorus

which trace element is a component of ATP, DNA, RNA, and the plasma membrane

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54

matter

anything that takes up space and has mass

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55

element

a substance that CANNOT be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions

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56

synaptic transmission

calcium also helps with _________ __________, which gets the 'message' from one neuron to the next

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57

compound

what is a substance consisting of two or more DIFFERENT elements combined into a fixed ratio

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58

molecule

O2 (imagine the 2 is small and on the bottom) is an example of this, multiple of the same element

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59

CHON

what acronym can you use to remember essential elements?

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60

carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen

name the essential elements in order of CHON

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61

essential

__________ elements are elements that are essential to life and found in the basic structure of all biochemical molecules

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62

trace

______ elements are elements required by an organism in only minute (small) qualities

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63

96

CHON makes up __% of living matter

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64

atom

the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element

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65

proton

positively charged

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66

neutron

neutral charge

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67

electron

negative charge

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68

atomic

________ number is the number of protons in an element

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69

mass

______ number is the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucelus of an atom

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70

neither

which has more electrons... carbon 12 or carbon 14

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71

isotopes

different atomic forms of a given element - the different amount of neutrons affect the element's mass, therefore creating this

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72

8

the second energy level can hold _ electrons

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73

2

the first energy level can hold _ electrons

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74

electrons

high energy sub atomic particles are...

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75

right

the intert elements are on the _____ of the periodic table

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76

shell

valence ______ is the outermost electron shell

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77

electrons

valence _______ are the outer electrons in the valence shell

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78

valency

the measure of a given element's bonding capacity with other atoms when it forms compounds/molecules (there are many ways to say this, the answer is the one ending in y for this)

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79

periods

in the periodic table, the rows are called ______

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80

groups

in the periodic table, the columns are called _______

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81

inert

what's another word for nonreactive? fargo will not tell you what it means on the tests/quizzes!

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82

chemical bonds

________ ______: these are formed when valence electrons from different atoms interact with each other forming molecules

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83

electronegativity

the attraction of a particular kind of atom for the electrons of a covalent bond

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84

electronegativity

more electrons = more ______________

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85

covalent ionic strong

c______ and i______ bonds are examples of s______ chemical bonds

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86

covalent

_______ bond: a bond consisting of pairs of shared electrons, polar or nonpolar. this is elements from the same side of the table (i think?)

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87

polar

______ covalent bond is a covalent bond in which the electrons are NOT shared equally

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88

polar

H2O is an example of a ______ covalent bond

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89

nonpolar

O2 is an example of a __________ covalent bond

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90

double

__________ covalent bond is a bond in which 2 pairs (OR 4 electrons) are shared

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91

nonpolar

_________ covalent bond: a covalent bond in which the electrons are shared equally

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92

anion

ion with a negative charge

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93

cation

ion with a positive charge

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94

okay

remember cations because cats have paws and are pawsitive!

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