Atomic Structure

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1

Define atom.

Smallest particle of every state of matter is called atom

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2

Mass and charge of a proton?

Relative Mass: 1 amu

Actual Mass: 1.673 x 10^-27 kg

Charge: + 1.6 x 10^-19 C

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3

Mass and charge of neutron?

Relative Mass: 1 amu

Actual Mass: 1.675 x 10^-27 kg

Charge: zero

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4

Mass and charge electron?

Relative Mass: 1/1840 OR 1/1836

Actual Mass: 9.11 x 10^-31

Actual Charge: -1.6x 10^-19

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5

Behaviour of subatomic particles in an electric field:

  • protons are +ve charged so attracted to -ve plate (less deflected, due to its larger mass)

  • neutron has no charge so unaffected

  • electron -ve charged so attracted to +ve plate

<ul><li><p>protons are +ve charged so attracted to -ve plate (less deflected, due to its larger mass)</p></li><li><p>neutron has no charge so unaffected</p></li><li><p>electron -ve charged so attracted to +ve plate</p></li></ul>
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6

Behaviour of subatomic particles in a magnetic field:

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7

Sequence of general electronic configuration:

1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2, 3d10, 4p6, 5s2, 4d10, 5p6…

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8

Define first ionization energy:

Energy required to remove 1 mole of of electron from a gaseous atom to form +1 charged gaseous ion at standard conditions.

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9

Define enthalpy change of atomization:

Energy required to form 1 mol of gaseous atom of any element from its standard state, at standard condition.

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10

Define second ionization energy:

Energy required to remove 1 mole of of electron from a gaseous atom to form +1 charged gaseous ion to form +2 charged gaseous ion at standard conditions.

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11

Factors affecting Ionization Energy.

  1. Atomic radii/distance from nucleus/number of shells: Increase in the number of shells makes the valence electron less firmly held in the valence shell so less IE means less energy is required to remove the electron.

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12

Why is the first ionization energy of phosphorus greater than the first ionization energy of silicon.

A phosphorus atom has one more proton than in its nucleus

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13

Which factor helps to explain why the first ionization energies of the Group I elements decrease from lithium to sodium to potassium to rubidium.

The shielding effect of the inner shells increase.

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14

What factor affects value of activation energy?

  1. nature of reactants

  2. presence of a catalyst

NOTE: Activation energy does not depend upon the temperature, pressure, volume, concentration, or coefficients of reactant.

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15

Why is the first ionisation energy of oxygen less than that of nitrogen?

the oxygen atom has a pair of electrons in one p orbital that repel each other.

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16

Which statement about the electrons in a ground state carbon is correct?

A. Electrons are present in four different energy levels.

B. There are more electrons in p orbitals than there are in s orbitals.

C. The occupied orbital of highest energy is spherical.

D. The occupied orbital of lowest energy is spherical.

Option D. The occupied orbital of lowest energy is spherical.

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17
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