Mesopotamian Empires

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Empire

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Social Studies

40 Terms

1

Empire

A large territory in which several groups of people are ruled by a single leader or government

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2

Sumerians

the creators of the first Mesopotamian civilization

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3

Social Classes

A system or organization in which people or groups are ranked one above the other according to status or authority.

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4

Mesopotamia

in ancient times, the geographic area located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (called land between two rivers)

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5

Assyria

This empire used highly advanced with their military. They were seen as mean, cruel and conquered a lot of land.

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6

Akkadians

These people were lead by Sargon- creators of the first empire.

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7

Agriculture

the practice of farming, including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and the domestication of animals to provide food, wool, and other products.

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8

Artifact

An object made by human beings; often refers to a primitive tool or other relic from an earlier period

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9

Epic of Gilgamesh

An epic legend about a Mesopotamian king. Literature from the ancient empires written on clay tablets found in the excavations of the library in Nineveh.

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10

Babylonians

A group of people who conquered the Akkadians. They had a very famous king named Hammurabi. Hammurabi created nearly 300 laws known as Hammurabi's Code of Laws.

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11

Monotheism

Belief in one God

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12

Merchants

Traders, people who buy and sell goods

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13

Priests

High hierarchy people who made offerings to the gods

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14

Exile

Forced people to move from their homelands to other lands, often far away

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15

Tribute

Money or goods that the ruler had to pay for the protection given by the Assyrian army.

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16

Battering ram

A powerful weapon having a wooden beam mounted on wheels

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17

Treasury

A place where the money is kept.

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18

Loom

To come into view usually from a high spot.

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19

Amorites

Re-unified Mesopotamia, and established their capital at Babylon, on the Euphrates. The Amorites (Old Babylonian Dynasty) ruled for about 300 years, from around 1900-1600 B.C.E.

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20

Hammurabi Code of Laws

First written law; one of the worlds oldest written codes of law. It is significant because they were written in stone. They were supposedly given to Hammurabi of the Mesopotamian civilization by a god, Eye for Eye

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21

Cup bearer

A person who fills and serves cups of wine, as at a banquet or to a king; also sometimes one who tastes the wine before handing it to his master to avoid poisoning

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22

Sargon

2340 B.C. leader of the Akkadians who overran the Sumerian city-state and set up the first empire

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23

Phalanx Military formation

A military formation of foot soldiers armed with spears and shields

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24

Bow and arrows, spears, shovels, and irrigation

Examples of the technology that Akkadians used

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25

Chaldeans (Neo-Babylonians)

An empire that arose late in the 7th century B.C.E. These peoples also deported rebellious populations but were less brutal than the Assyrians. Conquered Jerusalem and brought the Hebrew people to Babylon. Fell in 539 B.C.E. to Cyrus the Great of Persia.

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26

Hammurabi code of laws

FIRST written law; one of the world's oldest written codes of law. It is significant because they were written in stone. They were supposedly given to Hammurabi of the Mesopotamian civilization by a god, Eye for Eye

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27

Ashurbanipal II

King of Assyria who is famous for the palace and library he built at Nineveh

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28

Nineveh

capital of the assyrian empire

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29

Hebrews

Early group of people who lived in lands between Mesopotamia and Egypt. They developed the religion Judaism.

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30

Nebuchadnezzar II

King of Babylon who conquered Judah and carried off many of the inhabitants into exile in Babylon.

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31

Hanging Gardens of Babylon

An artificial mountain covered with trees and plants, built by Nebuchadnezzar to please his wife. The gardens are one of the Seven Wonders of the world.

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32

Ishtar Gate

The entrance gate into Babylon. It was built by Nebuchadnezzar.

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33

Jerusalem

A city in the Holy Land, regarded as sacred by Christians, Muslims, and Jews.

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34

Cyrus the Great

A remarkable leader who managed to reunite he Persian Empire in a powerful kingdom. Under Cyrus, Persia began building an empire larger than any yet seen in the world

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35

Persian empire

Mesopotamian empire that conquered the existing Median, Lydian, and Babylonian empires, as well as Egypt and many others. Also known as the Achaemenid Empire.

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36

Darius the Great

Ruler of the Persian Empire at its greatest size and power

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37

Royal Road (Persia)

A road in the Persian Empire, stretching over 1,600 miles from Susa in Persia to Sardis in Anatolia.

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38

Xerxes

Son of Darius; became Persian king. He vowed revenge on the Athenians. He invaded Greece with 180,000 troops in 480 B.C.

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39

Satraps

Governors of provinces in the Persian Empire

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40

King's Eyes and Ears

Secret Agents who worked for the Persian king to keep him informed on what was going on so he could rule more effectively

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