ACT - Math (copy)

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118 Terms

1

real number

All numbers on number line (ex: pos, zero, frac and more)

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non-real number

The number not on the number line (ex: i, neg root )

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3

rational number

decimal and fraction that is terminating or repeating

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4

irrational number

determinable and repeating frac and deci (ex: π or sqrt{2} )

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5

number line

spectrum of all real number extends infinitely both direction

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6

absolute value

distance from one value to other (always positive)

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7

integer

pos, 0, neg number that is not written in frac or deci

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8

whole number

positive integer (no 0, or neg)

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9

multiple

multiplying WN by other WN (ex: 7 x 1 or 7 x 2)

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10

factor

WN that results from dividing other two WN (ex: 30=5*6)

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11

prime number

WN with only two factors (ex: 7: 1,7)

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12

composite number

WN that has more than 2 factors (ex: 12: 1,2,3,4,6,12)

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13

prime factorization

factoring of composite number (30: 2x3x5)

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14

percent of change

measuring in a denominator of 100 (ex: 2/5 → 40/100, 40%)

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15

percent of group

putting sub group over entire group and finding percent

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16

reciprocal

Inverse or the switching of the value (ex: 3/4 → 4/3)

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17

ratio

compare quantity in reduced fraction (ex: 5/10→1/2→2:1)

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18

exponent

base number multiplied by itself in number of times

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19

imaginary number

i = √-1

i^2 = -1

i^3 = i

i^4 = 1

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20

complex number

z = a + bi (on graph: a → change y axis, b → change slope)

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21

distance formula

d = √(x2-x1)^2 + (y2-y1)^2

note: equation on right is under √

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22

mid-point formula

(x1+x2)/2 and (y1+y2)/2

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23

conjugate

when binomial are same but with different operator

(ex: 2x + 1 and 2x - 1)

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24

vector

arrow with both magnitude and direction

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25

Pythagorean theorem

x^2 + y^2 = z^2

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26

matrix

rectangular array that is used for data manipulation

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27

algebra

equations of relationship between number and quantities

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28

scientific notation

5000 → 5.0 x 10^3, or 0.005 → 5.0 x 10^-3

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29

systems of equation

two or more equation in single instance (ex: x = 5)

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30

inequality

relationship between two values or expressions (ex: x < 5)

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31

coefficient

quantity of unknowns (ex: 3x, there is x, 3 times)

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32

substitution

placing a given value of letter into the equation

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33

linear equation

any equation with one or more unknowns, infinite solution

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34

linear systems

find the values of the variables that satisfy all linear equation

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35

y ≤ x+5, y ≥ x+3

area below the line, area above the line

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36

is x^2, and x can have two possible solution in one position

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37

equation to solve the function with no linear term

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38

standard form

Ax + By = C

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39

vertex form

y=a(x-h)²+k, vertex: (h, k) highest or lowest point on a parabola

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40

factored form

f(x) = a(x-r1)(x-r2)

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41

roots

value that, when multiplied by itself, gives the original number

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42

logarithmic equations

inverse function of exponential equation

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43

function

assigns a unique output value to each input value

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44

series/sequence

terms that are added together following a pattern or rule

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45

consecutive number

series of number follow each other in difference of 1

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46

slope-intercept form

y=mx+b

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47

slope formula

(y2-y1)/(x2-x1)

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48

system of function

two or more function in a single instance

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49

trigonometric function

graph of a continuous smooth periodic oscillation

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50

period/phase

one complete cycle of trig function

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51

frequency

number of cycle of trig function

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52

amplitude

distance from the mean (x-axis)

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53

geometry

interpretation of 2 and 3 dimensional shapes and spaces

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54

origin

center of the coordinate plane (0, 0)

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55

an arc of 90°

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line

composition of dot as thin layer, is starlight and continuous

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segment

line that has an two endpoint

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angle

measure of arc between two intersecting segment or line

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59

complementary angle

sum of angle = 90°

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60

supplementary angle

sum of angle = 180°

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bisector

dividing the segment into two equal part from any angle

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62

perpendicular bisector

diving segment into two part equally with 90°

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vertical angles

4 angles formed by two intersecting line with sum of 360°

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transversal

line intersecting two parallel line creating 8 angles

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congruent

identical shape rotated in different angle

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66

similar

shape that has different size but same angle, and side length ratio

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67

polygon

complete shape having more than two sides

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68

angle total

finding total angle of polygon: a = (n-2)180

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69

perimeter

length of the outline of a shape

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70

triangle

three sided shape, with the total 180°

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71

Area of triangle

1/2 (base) (height)

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72

Isosceles triangle

has two identical sides and angles

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73

equilateral

three identical sides and angles

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Area of equilateral

A = (s²√3)/4, s → side

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75

right triangle

one angle is 90°

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76

triangle ratio

side length 3:4:5

side length 5:12:13

30° -60° -90°, 1: 2: √3/2

45°-45°-90°, 1: 1: √2

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77

four sided shape, with the total of 360°

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78

A = side^2

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79

Area of rectangle

A = length * height

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80

Area of parallelogram

A = base * height

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81

Area of trapezoid

A= (b1 + b2)/2 * height, b → base

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82

Area of rhombus

A = (d1 * d2)/2, d → distance

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83

circle

shape where each point of the is same distance from center

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84

distance from the center of the circle

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85

diameter of circle

full length segment that goes through center point

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86

tangent of circle

line that just touches the circle at one point

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87

chord of circle

line in-between diameter and tangent

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88

pi

ratio of circumference to diameter

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89

circumference of circle

C = 2 * *pi ** r

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90

Area of circle

A = pi * r^2

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91

r^2 = (x - h)^2 + (y - h)^2

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92

reflection

over x-axis: (2, 3) → (2, -3). over y-axis: (2, 3) → (-2, 3)

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93

rotation

rotating the shape on coordinate plane

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94

cylinder

volume = pi * radius^2 * height

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95

volume of rectangular solid

volume = length * width * height

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96

cube

volume = sides ^ 3

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97

surface area of cube

volume = 6 * sides ^ 2

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98

trigonometry

relationships between angles and ratios of lengths

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99

sine

opposite / hypotenuse

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100

cosine

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