Unit 1: Thinking Geographically

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rectilinear township

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60 Terms

1

rectilinear township

A(n) ________ and range survey system based upon lines of latitude and longitude.

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2

City location

________ and the level of urban economic exchange could be analyzed using central places within hexagonal market areas, which overlapped at different scales.

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3

homogeneous characteristic

A(n) ________ can be a common language.

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4

Long lot patterns

________ have a narrow frontage along a road or waterway with a very long lot shape behind.

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5

The concept of sequent occupancy is considered over a long term

in other words, the succession of groups and cultural influences throughout a places history

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6

Regions are categorized into three groups

formal, functional, and vernacular

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7

1

50,000

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8

1

1,000,000

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9

accuracy is based upon two concepts

area preservation and shape preservation

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10

place

A specific point on earth with human and physical characteristics that distinguish it from other places

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11

sequent occupancy

the succession of groups and cultural influences throughout a place’s history

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12

relative scale/scale of analysis

the level of aggregation, or in other words, the level at which you group things together for examination

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13

formal regions

areas of space that possess some homogeneous characteristic or uniformity

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14

functional/nodal regions

areas that have a central place, or node, that is a focus or point of origin

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15

vernacular regions

An area that people believe exist as part of their cultural identity

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16

absolute location

a point or place on the map using coordinates such as latitude and longitude

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17

relative location

the location of a place compared to a known place or geographic feature

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18

site

the physical characteristics of a place

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19

situation

the place’s interrelatedness with other places

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20

distance decay

the farther away different places are from a place of origin, the less likely interaction will be with the original place

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21

friction of distance

movement incurs some form of cost, in the form of physical effort, energy, time; costs are proportional to the distance traveled

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22

Space-Time Compression

Time-space compression refers to the set of processes (new tech, communication) that cause the relative distances between places to grow smaller.

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23

core and periphery relationships

Core countries are dominant capitalist countries that exploit peripheral countries for labor and raw materials. Peripheral countries are dependent on core countries for capital and have underdeveloped industry

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24

cluster

things are grouped together on the Earth’s surface

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25

scattered pattern

objects that are normally ordered but appear dispersed

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26

linear pattern

straight line

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27

sinous pattern

wavy line

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28

mental map

the cognitive image of landscape in the human mind

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29

large-scale map

Zoomed in map; more detial

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30

small-scale map

Zoomed out map; less detail

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31

Thematic Maps

Show data; thematic map displays spatial patterns and relationships between them (choropleth maps)

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32

Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

incorporates one or more data layers in a computer program capable of spatial analysis and mapping

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33

Global Positioning System (GPS)

utilizes a worldwide network of satellites, which emit a measurable radio signal; shows exactly where you are

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34

political regions

boundaries are finite and well-defined (country)

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35

spatial analysis

the mathematical analysis of one or more quantitative geographic patterns

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36

choropleth map

a thematic map that expresses the geographic variability of a particular theme using color variations

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37

isoline map

calculates data values between points across a variable surface (color blending)

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38

dot density map

uses dots to express the volume and density of a particular geographic feature

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39

flow-line map

uses lines of varying thickness to show the direction and volume of a particular geographic movement pattern

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40

cartograms

distorts size based on value of variable

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41

map projection

creates different levels of accuracy in terms of size and shape distortion for different parts of the Earth

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42

Robinson projection

Most used, curved edges, distorts all parts of globe, not useful for navigation.

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43

aerial photographs

images of the Earth from an aircraft, printed on film, but digital camera usage is on the increase

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44

remote-sensing satellites

use a computerized scanner from satellitesGloba to record data from the Earth’s surface (remote areas)

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45

Goode’s homolosine projection

Cuts out pieces of world, keeps accurate size, not useful for navigation.

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46

Mercator Projection

Distorts poles of the globe, map Europe look more powerful

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47

Relative Distance

Direction that can be described as a position (left)

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48

Absolute Distance

Direction that can be measured with standard units of length

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49

Reference Map

Shows geographical data, oceans, cities, borders, roads, ect

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50

Spatial Patterns

The placement of objects on Earth’s surface and the space between the objects

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51

Globalization

how trade and technology have made the world into a more connected and interdependent place.

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52

Interdependence

dependent on one another in some way

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53

Culture Ecology

The study of interactions between societies and their local environments

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54

Environmental Determinism

theory that environment causes social development or the idea that natural environment influences people

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55

Environmental Possibilism

theory that people can adjust or overcome an environment.

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56

Local Scale

city, town county, neighborhood

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57

Sub-national Regional

Smaller parts of a nation (states, provinces)

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58

National

Comparing Countries

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59

Regional

Comparing Regions (North America ect)

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60

Global

Comparing whole globe, usually no bor

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