ANS3405 Exam2

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Roughage

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Tags and Description

64 Terms

1

Roughage

high fiber feedstuffs (≥ 18% crude fiber)

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2

Grass forage

higher in hemicellulose and NDF

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3

Legume forage

higher in protein, calcium, pectin, lignin, vitamin E, & beta-carotene

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4

Early to Mid-Maturity Hay

lots of leaves, fine stems, few seed heads growing horses, lactating mares, hard keepers

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5

Mid-Maturity

lots of leaves, small + soft seed heads performance horses, pregnant mares

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6

Mid to Late-Maturity

stemmy hays, lots of mature seed heads recreational-use horses, easy keepers, ponies

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7

Early to Late maturity nutrient content

Decrease in: NSC, protein, minerals, DE, digestibility Increase in: hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin

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8

Advantages of processed forage

less sorting, less waste, reduce gut fill - more can be eaten, less storage space, minimal dust, less chewing (for bad teeth)

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9

Disadvantages of processed forage

eaten faster, boredom, wood chewing, may increase choke chances, may cost more, difficult to evaluate without lab

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10

Minimum amount of forage needed? Ideal level?

minimum amount = 1.5% BW ideal = 90-100% of diet is forage

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11

High-fiber alternatives to forage

beet pulp (highly digestible), hulls (less digestible)

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12

Cereal Grains

high in starch; low in sugar, fiber, and fat

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13

Grains vs forage

Grains have higher DE, higher starch, lower fiber

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14

Processing grains

alters physical form of grain and improves digestion EXCEPT for oats

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15

Grain byproducts

nutrient composition similar to roughages, all grain byproducts are high in phosphorus

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16

Rice bran

high in fat (other brans are not)

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17

High fat feedstuffs

vegetable oils, flaxseed, heat-processed soybeans

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18

Vegetable oil

provides fat, does not provide any other nutrients

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19

High protein feedstuffs

skim milk, soybean meal, cottonseed meal, whey, whole soybeans

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20

Why is fat and fiber added to commercial feeds over starch?

high starch can cause a digestive upset

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21

Fat-added feed

≥5% crude fat

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22

Fiber-added feed

≥12% crude fiber

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23

Fat and Fiber-added feed

≥5% crude fat and ≥12% crude fiber

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24

Concentrates

needed when forage-only diet does not meet nutrient requirements (ex. growing horses, late gestation mares, lactating mares, moderate to heavy exercise, fed low quality forages)

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25

Maximum amt of daily concentrate intake

< 50% total DM intake/day; 0.5% BW per meal

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26

Complete feed

complete feeds combine roughage + fortified concentrate and are only food source; ≥18% crude fiber

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27

Must add minerals

salt, electrolytes

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28

What vitamins and minerals are made by horse or microbes?

vitamin E, vitamin A; calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, chloride, potassium, zinc, manganese, copper, selenium

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29

What vitamins and minerals must be supplemented?

vitamin D, C, K; cobalt, chromium, fluorine, iodine, iron, sulfur

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30

Options to supplement vitamins/minerals

mineral blocks, premix vitamin/mineral, ration balancer

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31

When would vitamins/minerals needed to be supplemented?

forage only diet, unfortified grains, insufficient amt of fortified feed

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32

What are dietary sources of energy? And what is their immediately available form?

Starch and sugar = blood glucose, fiber = propionate, acetate, fat = fatty acids, protein = some glucose/acetate

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33

Stored forms of dietary energy

starch/sugar = liver/muscle glycogen + triglycerides, fiber = same as sugar/starch, fat = triglycerides, protein = not stored

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34

How does exercise affect which energy sources are used?

Endurance = mostly fat, some carbs Middle distance = mostly carbs, some fat Sprint = carbs Combo = carbs and fat

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35

Nutrient requirements most affected by exercise

Energy, water, electrolytes, vitamin E

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36

Expected DM intake and hay:concentrate needed for horses in work

Light = 2% BW (70-80% forage, 20-30% grain) Moderate = 2.25% BW (50-70% forage, 30-50% grain) Heavy/intense = 2.5% BW (40-50% forage, 50-60% grain)

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37

What is lost in sweat? What affects it?

electrolytes; increased heat + humidity, increased exercise duration

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38

What are some electrolyte replacement strategies?

Replace them as they are lost, add to water, salt, top dress feed, oral paste; horses cannot store electrolytes

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39

What are benefits of adding fat to diet?

decreased excitability, decreased dust, energy source, shiny coat

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40

Is a high protein diet harmful to most horses? What happens to excess protein?

not generally harmful as long as adequate water is supplied; BUT will increase ammonia excretion which is bad for respiratory system in stalled horse

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41

What happens when horse eats grain meal? How long do effects last? How does it impact fuel availability?

Insulin increases with blood glucose, decrease in fat mobilization for 4 hours; puts body in storage mode and reduces fuel available to muscle

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42

What happens when horse eats large hay meal? How long do these effects last?

decreased blood volume, increased gut fill and weight; lasts about 4 hours

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43

How would a large hay meal affect exercise? How does this change with a small hay meal?

gut will compete with muscles for blood and increased body weight negatively affects exercise; small hay meal reduces this effect

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44

What is a good pre-exercise feeding strategy?

Small grain and hay meals with continuous hay intake; decreases risk of colic and negative effects on fuel availability

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45

What is a good post-exercise feeding strategy?

replenish muscle glycogen with starch, do NOT feed until body temp drops below 102, use good quality hay + small grain meal 60-90mins after exercise, then grain again 2-3hrs later

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46

Difference between RER and PSSM

RER - defective calcium regulation PSSM - excess of abnormal muscle glycogen

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47

How does high NSC trigger RER and PSSM?

RER - indirect effect - excitable behavior PSSM - direct effect - glycogen synthesis

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48

How should RER/PSSM horses be fed?

RER - low to moderate NSC with added fat concentrate, low NSC hay/pasture PSSM - low NSC with added fat concentrate, low NSC hay/pasture

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49

How is nutrition connected to sporadic vs chronic tying up?

Sporadic - deficient in electrolytes, vitamin E, selenium Chronic - high starch/sugar

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50

How does nutrition affect reproductive performance?

deficient DE and protein can result in messed up fertility and pregnancy loss

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51

How does body condition affect reproductive performance in broodmares?

thin = lower pregnancy rate, low milk production obese = low milk production, risk of metabolic disease

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52

What is the ideal body condition score for broodmares? Why?

BCS 6-7; she will need fat stores for weaning and lactating

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53

What type of mare would the practice of "flushing" going into the breeding season be most effective?

may help improve fertility in thin mares

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54

When is the most opportune time to improve the body condition of a broodmare? Why?

in early gestation; her nutrient requirements are similar maintenance which will allow her to put on weight

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55

How much weight gain is needed to move up 1 BCS level?

20kg

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56

How many extra Mcal DE are needed for 1kg of weight gain?

20Mcal DE

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57

Maximum safe weight gain in mature horses

0.5kg/day

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58

How does gestation and lactation affect the mare's requirements?

all nutrients affected by lactation; DE increase 90%, protein increase 45%, minerals increase 25%(TM)-200%(Ca + P)

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59

How does stage of pregnancy or lactation affect how we feed mares?

early gestation = forage usually sufficient, concentrate only needed if mare needs to gain weight late gestation = forage 70-80% diet, concentrate 20-30% lactation = forage 50-60% diet, concentrate 40-50%

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60

How should we manage mares consuming tall fescue? Why?

remove mares from infected fescue 30 days before foaling and mow pastures; fescue can increase length of gestation, stillborn foals, retained placenta

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61

How should you handle the mare's diet around the time of weaning? Why?

feed normally up to weaning; post-weaning gradually reduce concentrate

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62

What is the ideal body condition score for stallions? Why?

BCS 5-6; need energy stores for breeding season

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63

What affects stallion's requirements?

temperament and psychological response to breeding

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64

How should stallions be fed during non-breeding and breeding seasons?

non-breeding = "high" maintenance, 90-100% forage and 0-10% concentrate breeding = light work, 70-80% forage and 20-30% concentrate

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