APUSH Period 7 vocab

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bull moose party

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bull moose party

a Progressive republican third-party founded by Theodore Roosevelt

- ensured a victory for the democrats in the election of 1912 by splitting the votes for the Republican Party

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a study of factors that influence the hereditary qualities of the human race and ways to improve those qualities

- argued that mentally deficient people should be prevented from reproducing

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federal reserve act

1913; created a central banking system, consisting of twelve regional banks governed by the Federal Reserve Board

- an attempt to provide the United States with a sound yet flexible currency

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popular journalists who used publicity to expose corruption and attack abuses of power in businesses and government

- their works often led to a variety of reforms

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new freedom/new nationalism

NF: Woodrow Wilson's plan to emphasize small enterprise, entrepreneurship, and the free functioning of unregulated and unmonopolized markets; NN: Roosevelt's plan that favored consolidation of the trusts and labor unions, supplemented by the growth of federal regulatory agencies

- NF emphasized economic competition while NN emphasized economic equality

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panic of 1907

the first worldwide financial crisis of the 20th century caused by a build-up of speculative investment driven by loose monetary policy

- led to the creation of the Federal Reserve

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the prevention by law of the manufacture and sale of alcohol between 1920 and 1933

- was intended to reduce crime and corruption, solve social problems, and improve American health and hygiene

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pure food and drug act

prohibited the sale of misbranded or adulterated food and drugs in interstate commerce

- laid the foundation for the FDA

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a vote on a single specific issue put to the public by the government

- a form of direct democracy

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settlement houses

organizations that provided support services to the urban poor and European immigrants, often included education, healthcare, childcare, and employment services

- created a safe haven for those who were being introduced to the city

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sierra club

an organization founded in 1892 that was dedicated to the enjoyment and preservation of America's great mountains and wilderness environments

- inspired governments to begin to set aside more public lands for preservation and recreation

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social gospel

a reform movement led by Protestant ministers who used religious doctrine to demand better housing and living conditions for the urban poor

- influenced other progressive reforms

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square deal

Theodore Roosevelt's domestic policy based on three things: protection of the consumer, control of large corporations, and conservation of natural resources

- several progressive acts were passed as a result

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members of the Industrial Workers of the World labor union

- unlike the AFL, they opened membership to everybody, regardless of race, skills, or gender

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womens christian temperance union

women's organization founded by reformer Frances Willard and others to oppose alcohol consumption

- held prayer meetings and tried to get saloons to stop selling alcohol

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womens club movement

literary clubs that educated women in "poem and prose" but eventually became a meeting hall for social issues and current events

- gave confidence and taught skills to middle-class women

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american expeditionary force

the United States Armed Forces sent to Europe under the command of General John J. Pershing in 1917 to help fight WW1

- was the first time in American history that the US sent soldiers abroad to defend foreign soil

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dollar diplomacy

the economic policy of Taft to ensure the financial stability of a region while also protecting and expanding US commercial and financial interests there

- specifically influenced Latin and South America

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great migration

the movement of African Americans from the South to the industrial centers of the Northeast and Midwest

- caused by decreasing cotton prices, a lack of immigrant workers in the north, increased manufacturing because of the war, and the strengthening of the KKK

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league of nations

an international peacekeeping organization created by Wilson after WW1

- although the US created it, the US did not join it

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ludlow massacre

20 people died in a violent attack on a tent colony of coal miners and their families by the Colorado National Guard on April 20, 1914

  • ended the 1913-14 Colorado Coal Miners' Strike

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a British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-boat on May 7, 1915; 128 Americans died

- greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war

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19th amendment

extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections

- ended the long fight for women's suffrage

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Palmer Raids/red scare

a series of government actions against suspected radicals, anarchists, and communists by Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer

- jailed many innocent people

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Roosevelt corollary

a foreign policy statement by Teddy Roosevelt in 1904 that claimed the right of the United States to intervene in the domestic affairs of Western hemisphere nations to maintain stability

- implemented in the building of the Panama Canal

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fourteen points

the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace

- called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms, and a league of nations

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treaty of versailles

the treaty imposed on Germany by France, Great Britain, the US, and other Allied powers after WW1 that demanded that Germany dismantle its military and give up some lands to Poland

- made Germany very upset, which would lead to the second world war

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trench warfare

a form of warfare in which the opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battlefield

- wasn't very effective because it created lots of stalemates

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united negro improvement association

an organization founded by Marcus Garvey dedicated to racial pride, economic self-sufficiency, and the formation of an independent black nation in Africa

- it left a legacy of activism among working-class blacks

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zimmerman telegram

a 1917 intercepted dispatch in which Germany urged Mexico to join the Central Powers in exchange for Germany helping them recover Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona

- inflamed American public opinion against Germany

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american plan

term that some U.S. employers in the 1920s used to describe their policy of refusing to negotiate with unions

- demonstrated laissez-faire economics

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harlem renaissance

a cultural explosion of African American music, art, and literature in the early 20th century

- showcased African American heritage

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lost generation

a group of writers who were disillusioned with 1920s American society

- Sinclair Lewis and F. Scott Fitzgerald were two of these writers

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national origins act

1924; a law that severely restricted immigration by establishing a system of national quotas

- blatantly discriminated against immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and virtually excluded Asians

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scopes monkey trial

the 1925 prosecution of a science teacher for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school

- showed the clash between new and old Christian beliefs

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teapot dome scandal

scandal during the Harding administration involving the granting of oil-drilling rights on government land in return for money

- one of the most extreme examples of government corruption in US history

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the jazz singer

the first movie with sound

- was about the life of famous jazz singer Al Jolson

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welfare capitalism

an approach to labor unions in which companies met some of their workers' needs without prompting by unions

- prevented strikes and kept productivity high

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black tuesday

October 29, 1929; date of the worst stock-market crash in American history

- the beginning of the Great Depression

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bonus army

a group of WW1 veterans who marched to Washington D.C. to demand early cash redemption of their service bonus certificates

- showed the hysteria that the people had amid the Great Depression

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dust bowl

a period of severe dust storms in the Great Plains region caused by severe drought and poor farming practices

- severely damaged the agriculture and the soil there

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a German zeppelin that crashed in Lakehurst, New Jersey in 1937 after a transatlantic voyage; one of the first worldwide radio broadcasts

- named after the president of Germany who appointed Hitler to be Chancellor in 1933

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shanty towns that they unemployed built in the cities during the early years of the Depression

- the name showed that they blamed the president for the Great Depression

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the nickname given to farmers and their families who came from the panhandle regions of Oklahoma or Texas to California

- they were trying to escape the Dust Bowl and find new opportunities

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popular front

a period during the mid-1930s during which the Communist party made efforts to ally itself with the New Dealers and Socialists

- pushed a vision of social and economic radicalism

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reconstruction finance corporation

a government lending agency established under the Hoover administration in order to assist insurance companies, banks, agricultural organizations, railroads, and local governments

- this was the first time the federal government had established a federal agency to stimulate the economy during peacetime

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tariff act of 1930

raised import taxes to protect American businesses and farmers

- added strain to the Great Depression

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bank holiday

Franklin Roosevelt closed all American banks for 4 days while Congress met

- created a sense of relief for the public

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congress of industrial organizations

a federation of labor union for all unskilled workers

- unlike the AFL, this union didn't restrict membership to only skilled workers

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court-packing plan

Roosevelt's proposal in 1937 to appoint an additional Supreme Court Justice for each current one over the age of 70

- would've allowed him to sway the Courts in his favor

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glass-steagall act

established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and included banking reforms, some of which were designed to control speculation

- was one of the most widely debated pieces of legislation

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second new deal

a new set of programs that focused on increasing worker protections and building long-lasting financial security for Americans

- began after much of the 1st set was declared unconstitutional

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sit-down strike

a strike in which workers stop working but remain at their workplace

- an effective way to keep companies from using strikebreakers

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social security act

created a social insurance program designed to pay retired workers age 65 or older a continuing income after retirement

- also helped handicapped people and dependent mothers and children

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policy by which Czechoslovakia, Great Britain, and France agreed to Germany's annexation of the Sudentenland in agreement for not taking any additional Czech territory

- they hoped this would sate Hitler and prevent him from declaring war

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atlantic charter

joint declaration made by Great Britain and the United States during World War II that endorsed national self-determination and an international system of general security

- set a vision for the postwar world

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dawes plan

a plan to revive the German economy in which the US loans Germany money, who can then pay their reparations back to England and France, and then those two can pay back their loans from the US

- very successful for the world economy

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good neighbor policy

FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations with Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region

- improved the United States' standing in South America

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kellogg-briand pact

an international agreement, signed by almost every nation in 1928, to stop using war as a method of national policy

- essentially outlawed war

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gave FDR the power to lend or lease war supplies to any nation to help it defend itself against the Axis powers

- allowed the US to help without violating its neutrality

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neutrality acts

originally designed to avoid American involvement in World War II by preventing loans to the countries taking part in the conflict; were later modified in 1939 to allow aid to Great Britain and other Allied nations

- intended to keep the US out of future wars

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pearl harbor

naval base in Hawaii attacked by Japanese aircraft on December 7, 1941

- brought the US into WWII

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washington conference

1921 - president Harding invited delegates from Europe and Japan, and they agreed to limit production of war ships, to not attack each other's possessions, and to respect China's independence

- an attempt to prevent a naval armaments race

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battle of the bulge

1944-1945; the Nazi armies launched an offensive against the Allies in Belgium but lost

- Germany's final counterattack in the west

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Mexican workers that were brought to America to work short-term labor contracts in order to make up for wartime labor shortages

- they were paid little and treated poorly

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congress of racial equality (CORE)

a civil rights organization founded in 1942 that challenged segregation and advocated for civil rights through nonviolent direct action

- one of the most powerful organizations leading the civil rights movement

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the day that the combined Allied armies led a massive invasion on the beaches of Normandy, France

- led to the end of the war

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the first U.S. land victory over the Japanese in 1943

- ended all Japanese expansion attempts and placed the Allies in a position of clear supremacy

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the mass slaughter of Europe's Jews and others by the Nazis

- over 6 million Jews died

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korematsu v. US

1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans to internment camps

- the Courts didn't apologize for this until 1988

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manhattan project

a research and development project that produced the first atomic bombs during WWII

- produced the atomic bombs that leveled Hiroshima and Nagasaki

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battle of midway

an enormous battle that raged for four days near the small American outpost at Midway Island, at the end of which the US, despite great losses, was victorious

- regained control of the central Pacific for the US

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internment camps

American camps where Japanese-Americans were held during WWII for fear of spies and saboteurs during WWII

- violated their rights as citizens

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rosie the riveter

a propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories

- became a rallying symbol for women to "do their part" in the war

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an instrument that measures the locality of underwater objects by sending out acoustic pulses

- used by Allied naval forces to decimate German U-boats

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the government of unoccupied France after the country’s defeat by the germans in june 1940

  • willfully collaborated with nazi germany

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