Bio Mid Term

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Atom

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207 Terms

1

Atom

Basic unit of matter

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Molecule

A group of atoms bonded together

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Macromolecule

a large molecule

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Organelle

specialized structure within the cell

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5

Cell

Basic unit of life

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Tissue

group of similar cells that perform a particular function

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7

Organ

A collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body

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8

Organ System

group of organs that work together to perform a specific function

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Organism

An individual living thing

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10

Carbon

one of the four atoms found in all living organisms and bonds 4 times

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11

bonds 4x and makes a molecule organic

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12

Chemical Bond

the force that holds substances together

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13

Compound

when two or more elements combine

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14

Electron

negatively charged particles located outside the nucleus

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15

Element

a chemical made up of only one kind of atom

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16

Hydrogen

one of the four atoms found in all living organisms and bonds 1 time

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17

Molecular Formula

a molecular formula shows the type of atoms in the molecule and the number of each atom

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18

Neutron

particle with no charge found inside the nuclueus

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19

Nitrogen

one of the four atoms found in all living organisms and bonds 3 times

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20

Oxygen

one of the four atoms found in all living organisms and bonds two timews

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21

Phosphorus

atom found inside the nucleic acid

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22

Proton

positively charge particle found inside the nucleus

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23

Structural Formula

a formula that shows the arrangement of atoms in the molecule of a compound.

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Amino Acid

monomer of a protein

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25

Atomic Nucleus

An atom's dense central core, containing protons and neutrons.

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26

Dehydration Synthesis

A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.

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27

DNA

polymer of nucleic acids

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28

Energy

the ability to move and power the body and all things

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29

Enzyme

A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing

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30

Glycerol

Combines with fatty acids to make lipids.

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Hydrolysis

Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water

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32

Fatty Acid

Building Blocks of Lipids

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Monomer

building blocks of polymers

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Monosaccharide

A single sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose, the simplest type of sugar.

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35

What atoms are Nucleic Acid made of

hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus

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Nucleotide

monomer of nucleic acids

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37

Polymer

molecules composed of many monomers; makes up macromolecules

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38

Polysaccharide

Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides

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RNA

ribonucleic acid

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40

Aerobic Respiration

Respiration that requires oxygen

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Anaerobic Respiration

Respiration that does not require oxygen

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Cellular Respiration

a chemical process in which the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken down and new molecules are formed that can transport energy to muscles.

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Chemical Energy

A form of potential energy that is stored in chemical bonds between atoms.

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44

Cytoplasm

A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended

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Glucose

C6H12O6

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Fermentation

the process of releasing energy from food molecules to produce energy (ATP), without oxygen.

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47

Input

what is put in, taken in, or operated on by any process or system.

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48

Lactic Acid

product of fermentation in many types of cells, including human muscle cells

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Mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production

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Output

The results of the operation of any system.

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Reactant

A chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction

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Product

A substance produced in a chemical reaction

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53

Water

H2O

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Positive Feedback

Feedback that tends to magnify a process or increase its output.

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Negative Feedback

a mechanism of response in which a stimulus initiates reactions that reduce the stimulus

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Involuntary Response

A response to a stimulus that occurs without someone making a conscious choice. They are automatic, such as reflexes.

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Voluntary Response

sampling design where individuals can choose on their own whether to participate in the sample

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Stimulus

a signal to which an organism responds

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Thermoregulation

Process of maintaining an internal temperature within a tolerable range.

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60

Carbon Cycle

the movement of carbon from the nonliving environment into living things and back

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chemical energy

Energy stored in chemical bonds

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Chloroplast

organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy

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chlorophyll

A green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria

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Energy

the ability to do work

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heat energy

thermal energy

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Law of Conservation of Energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed

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Law of Conservation of Matter

Matter is not created nor destroyed in any chemical or physical change

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matter

Anything that has mass and takes up space

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69

Mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production

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70

respiration

the process by which organisms combine oxygen with foodstuff molecules, diverting the chemical energy in these substances into life-sustaining activities and discarding, as waste products, carbon dioxide and water

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Solar energy

energy from the sun

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72

Animal cell

does not have a cell wall or chloroplast and a small vacuole

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cell wall

a structural layer that surrounds some cell types, found immediately outside the cell membrane.

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cell membrane

A cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell.

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Eukaryotic cells

Contain a nucleus and other organelles that are bound by membranes.

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Nucleus

Control center of the cell

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plant cell

contains a cell wall, chloroplast and large vacuole

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prokaryotic cell

cell lacking a nucleus and most other organelles

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79

Autotroph

An organism that makes its own food

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80

Community

All the different populations that live together in an area

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81

Consumers

An organism that obtains energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains.

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Decomposers

Organisms that break down the dead remains of other organisms

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83

Ecology

The study of how living things interact with each other and their environment

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Energy pyramid

Shows the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web

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Food chain

A series of events in which one organism eats another and obtains energy.

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Food web

a system of interlocking and interdependent food chains.

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Heterotroph

An organism that cannot make its own food.

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primary consumer

An organism that eats producers

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producer

An organism that can make its own food.

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secondary consumer

An organism that eats primary consumers

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Tertiary consumer

An organism that eats secondary consumers

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trophic level

Each step in a food chain or food web

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93

carrying capacity

Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support

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density dependent factors

limiting factor that depends on population size

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Density Independent factors

limiting factors whose influence is not affected by population density

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Emigration

movement of individuals out of an area

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Exponential Growth

Growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate

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98

Growth Rate

Rate of increase or decrease of a population

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Immigration

Movement of individuals into a population

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Limiting factor

factor that causes the growth of a population to decrease

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